VOA英语学习网 > 科学美国人 > 2022年科学美国人 > 科学美国人60秒科学系列 >
缩小放大

科学美国人60秒:有没有感觉到你的宠物在评判你?

[提示:]双击单词,即可查看词义!
中英对照 听力原文

This is Scientific American’s 60-Second Science. I’m Karen Hopkin.

这里是《科学美国人》的60秒科学。我是凯伦·霍普金。

Ever get the feeling that your cat is judging you?

有没有感觉到你的猫在评判你?

Well, you’re in for a surprise. Because it’s actually your pooch who might be viewing you with a critical eye.

那么,给你一个惊喜。一直在评判你的可能是你的狗。

That’s according to a study that shows that dogs can assess human aptitude…and will look toward people who seem to know what they’re doing. The work appears in the journal Behavioral Processes.

发表在《行为过程》(Behavioral Processes)杂志上一项研究表明,狗可以评估人类行不行,并且会看向那些似乎对自己所做之事更有把握的人。

Our aim was to test whether dogs are sensitive to humans’ competence levels. And whether they evaluate humans on this trait.

我们的目的是测试狗对人类的做事能力是否敏感,以及它们是否会根据这一特征对人类进行评估。

Hitomi Chijiiwa is an assistant professor at Osaka University. If critiquing people’s proficiency seems an odd job for a pup, it may not be all that far fetched. Canines have spent more than 10,000 years by our sides.

千千岩眸是大阪大学的一名助理教授。对人类做某件事的熟练程度加以评判,似乎不是小狗狗应该会有的行为,但其实这也并不那么牵强,毕竟犬科动物已经陪伴了我们一万多年。

[So] Dogs are highly sensitive to human behavior.

[所以]狗对人类的行为高度敏感。

And they pay particular attention to things like how cooperative we are.

它们特别关注人与人之间的合作程度

For example, our previous study showed that dogs avoid people who refuse to help their owner.

例如,我们以前的研究表明,狗会避开那些拒绝帮助主人的人。

So Chijiiwa and her colleagues got to wondering whether dogs might also rate us in terms of our skillfulness. Particularly if those skills might come in handy for our four-footed little friends. So they set up a simple experiment.

因此,千千岩和她的同事开始思考,狗是否也会根据我们的技能来评价我们,特别是如果这些技能可能对我们的四脚兽朋友们派上用场的时候。她们做了一个简单的实验。

We showed 60 dogs two persons manipulating transparent containers. One person is competent.

我们让60只狗狗观看两个人拧开透明容器的过程,其中一人能拧开。

That person was able to pop open the top after just a couple of twists.

那个人只用转动几下就可以打开盖子。

Whereas the other person is incompetent and they failed at this task.

而另一个人则不行,他在这项任务中失败了。

That person tried to open the lid, then gave up. The actors repeated the performance on a second container, with the same results

那个人试图打开盖子,然后放弃了。演员们在第二个容器上重复表演,结果相同。

Then the researchers handed both actors a third container. In some trials, this container was empty. In others, it contained a treat. And what they found was that female dogs spent more time gazing expectantly at the person who had previously demonstrated container-opening know-how.

然后研究人员递给两个演员第三个容器。在一些试验中,这个容器是空的。在其他的试验中,里面装有食物。他们发现,雌性狗花了更多的时间期待地注视着之前展示过打开容器技巧的人。

And they were more likely to approach the competent person.

而且它们更有可能接近这个有能力的人。

But only when they thought they might get free food.

但只有当它们认为自己可能得到免费食物时才会这样做。

Dogs in the empty condition showed no preferences.

在空的情况下,狗狗们没有表现出任何的偏好。

(Although one little cutie with a bow on her head did bark at all the containers, regardless of their contents.)

(虽然有一只头上戴着蝴蝶结的小可爱对着所有的容器吠叫,不管里面装的是什么。)

So, why would females be more censorious observers of people’s performances than males?

那么,为什么雌性会比雄性对人们的表现进行更严格的观察?

Female superiority in the social cognitive domain has been reported across many mammalian species including humans.

多项研究表明,包括人类在内的多种哺乳动物在社会认知领域都具有女性(雌性)优势。

In other words, in many cognitive studies, furry females seem to show a higher social IQ than mammalian males. And sex differences have been seen in other pup studies.

换句话说,在许多认知研究中,毛茸茸的雌性哺乳动物似乎比雄性表现出更高的社会智力(Social intelligence),在其他幼犬研究中也发现了性别差异。

For example, females look at their owners more frequently and longer than males when facing unsolvable task. [And] Female dogs solve significantly more tasks than males in social learning task.

例如,在面临无法解决的任务时,母狗狗会比公狗狗更频繁、更长时间地注视主人,且在社会学习任务中,母狗狗解决的任务也明显多于公狗狗。

So…next time Fifi looks at you with those puppy dog eyes…you might be thinking, what a good dog! But she might be thinking, Meh, you could do better.

下次你家狗主子用那种惹人怜爱的小狗眼睛看着你时,你在想的可能是“真是我的好狗狗”,但它可能会想:“emmmm,你还得继续加油啊。”

For Scientific American’s 60-Second Science, I’m Karen Hopkin.

《科学美国人》的60秒科学,凯伦·霍普金报道。

Karen Hopkin: This is Scientific American’s 60-Second Science. I’m Karen Hopkin.

Ever get the feeling that your cat is judging you?

[Cat meows]

Hopkin: Well, you’re in for a surprise. Because it’s actually your pooch who might be viewing you with a critical eye.

[Dog barking in experiment]

Hopkin: That’s according to a study that shows that dogs can assess human aptitude…and will look toward people who seem to know what they’re doing. The work appears in the journal Behavioral Processes.

Hitomi Chijiiwa: Our aim was to test whether dogs are sensitive to humans’ competence levels. And whether they evaluate humans on this trait.

Hopkin: Hitomi Chijiiwa is an assistant professor at Osaka University. If critiquing people’s proficiency seems an odd job for a pup, it may not be all that far fetched. Canines have spent more than 10,000 years by our sides.

Chijiiwa: [So] Dogs are highly sensitive to human behavior.

Hopkin: And they pay particular attention to things like how cooperative we are.

Chijiiwa: For example, our previous study showed that dogs avoid people who refuse to help their owner.

Hopkin: So Chijiiwa and her colleagues got to wondering whether dogs might also rate us in terms of our skillfulness. Particularly if those skills might come in handy for our four-footed little friends. So they set up a simple experiment.

Chijiiwa: We showed 60 dogs two persons manipulating transparent containers. One person is competent.

Hopkin: That person was able to pop open the top after just a couple of twists.

[Sound from experiment]

Chijiiwa: Whereas the other person is incompetent and they failed at this task.

Hopkin: That person tried to open the lid, then gave up. The actors repeated the performance on a second container, with the same results: the competent person succeeded, the other, not so much.

Then the researchers handed both actors a third container. In some trials, this container was empty. In others, it contained a treat. And what they found was that female dogs spent more time gazing expectantly at the person who had previously demonstrated container-opening know-how.

Chijiiwa: And they were more likely to approach the competent person.

Hopkin: But only when they thought they might get free food.

Chijiiwa: Dogs in the empty condition showed no preferences.

Hopkin: (Although one little cutie with a bow on her head did bark at all the containers, regardless of their contents.)

[Audio of dog barking through experiment]

Hopkin: So, why would females be more censorious observers of people’s performances than males?

Chijiiwa: Female superiority in the social cognitive domain has been reported across many mammalian species including humans.

Hopkin: In other words, in many cognitive studies, furry females seem to show a higher social IQ than mammalian males. And sex differences have been seen in other pup studies.

Chijiiwa: For example, females look at their owners more frequently and longer than males when facing unsolvable task. [And] Female dogs solve significantly more tasks than males in social learning task.

Hopkin: So…next time Fifi looks at you with those puppy dog eyes…you might be thinking, what a good dog! But she might be thinking, Meh, you could do better.

For Scientific American’s 60-Second Science, I’m Karen Hopkin.


内容来自 VOA英语学习网https://www.chinavoa.com/show-8834-243348-1.html
内容推荐
<