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科学美国人60秒:有些音乐会让人情不自禁的舞动

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This is Scientific American’s 60-Second Science. I’m Karen Hopkin.

这里是《科学美国人》的60秒科学。我是凯伦·霍普金。

Ever notice that some music just really makes you want to dance?

有没有注意到有些音乐真的让你想跳舞?

Well, a new study shows that it is, indeed, all about the bass. Because researchers have found that, during a concert, boosting the bass bumps up the boogying. The results appear in the journal Current Biology.

那么,一项新研究表明,这和音乐里的低音有关,研究人员发现,在音乐会期间加入更多的低音会让人更多地随音乐起舞。相关结果发表在《当代生物学》(Current Biology)杂志上。

Music and musical rhythm have been kind of fascinating to me for a long time, since I was a kid. In particular, the way that they make us feel.

从很小的时候起我就对音乐和音乐节奏十分着迷,特别是它们带给人们的感觉。

Daniel Cameron is a postdoctoral fellow at McMaster University. He also plays drums.

丹尼尔·卡梅隆是麦克马斯特大学的博士后研究员。他同时也是个鼓手。

As a drummer, you’re interested in making the crowd want to move and feel good and give a good pleasurable time feel. And this is related to the work I do in science.

作为一名鼓手,你感兴趣的是如何让人群律动起来,心情愉悦,沉浸享受。这就涉及到了我的科学研究领域

Cameron and his colleagues want to understand how music can engender an almost irrepressible urge to feel our bodies in motion.

卡梅隆和他的同事们想了解音乐如何能产生一种几乎不可抗拒的冲动,让我们的身体随之律动。

And we knew from anecdotal evidence and other experimental evidence that there was an association between bass and dancing.

基于各种故事和实验证据,我们发现低音和起舞之间存在一定关联。

So, people who enjoy electronic dance music, or EDM, report that the thrumming bass produces a sensation that makes them want to move. And some studies have shown that our movements are more fine-tuned when we’re locked onto bass notes.

喜欢电子舞曲(EDM)的人表示,持续的低音会产生一种让他们想要随之律动的感觉,而一些研究表明,在锚定低音音符时,我们的动作节奏会更准确。

So, for example, if you have people tap along to a sequence of tones, their tapping is slightly more accurate, they’re more synchronized…when those tones are low in frequency compared to high in frequency.

例如,如果你让人们跟着低音打节拍,他们的拍子会更准确一点,更一致一点。

So the researchers set out to determine:

所以研究人员着手实验。

If you add more bass to music, will it cause more dancing?

如果你在音乐中加入更多的低音,会引发更多的起舞吗?

Now, they didn’t want to manipulate the bass line in a way that was obvious. Because then people might consciously decide to step up their stepping out.

他们不想以一种显而易见的方式对低音进行操纵,因为那样做人们可能会有意识地增加他们的舞动。

That might be interesting…

这可能很有趣...

But it would also muddy the results…like if someone in a drug trial knows they’re getting the real deal and not a placebo.

但也会混淆实验结果,这就好像药物试验中的受试者知道他们用的是真药而不是安慰剂一样。

So we wanted to do a subtle manipulation, a very consciously undetectable manipulation.

所以我们想做一个微妙的操纵,一个非常有意识地无法察觉的操纵。

So they broke out a set of very very low frequency speakers.

所以他们拿出了一套非常非常低频的扬声器。

These are specialized speakers. Kind of like sub-subwoofers. People might have subwoofers as part of their stereo system. And these are speakers that play even lower frequencies than most systems are able to do. Even lower frequencies than we think are typically able to be heard.

这些是非常专业的扬声器,有点像低音炮。低音喇叭常常作为立体声系统的一部分,它们播放的频率低于大多数系统所能播放的频率,甚至比我们通常能够听到的频率还要低。

With their special speakers set up, the researchers staged a concert.

研究人员将他们的特殊扬声器安装好后,上演了一场音乐会。

We had the electronic music duo Orphx come to our LIVELab.

我们让电子音乐二人组Orphx来到我们的LIVELab。

That’s LIVE…L-I-V-E…for large, interactive virtual environment. It’s like a cross between a performance space and a laboratory.

这里的“LIVE”是“large, interactive virtual environment”,即大型交互式虚拟环境,它就像表演空间和实验室的叠加。

The people who came to the show were fans of the group. They wanted to come and see EDM. They wanted to dance. And while they were there, we asked if they wanted to volunteer in our experiment. And a good number of people signed up.

来观看演出的都是乐队的粉丝,他们想来看EDM,他们想跳舞,进场时我们询问他们是否愿意参与我们的实验,有很多人都报名了。

Recruits adorned themselves with headbands bearing motion-capture reflectors…which the researchers used to track their movements.

参与实验的人们戴着带有运动捕捉反射器的头带,用于跟踪他们的动作。

And then what we did was just, during the concert, turn these very low frequency speakers on, leave them on for two and a half minutes, turn them off. Leave them off for two and a half minutes. Back on for two and a half minutes. Off for two and a half minutes. On off on off. Throughout the concert.

然后我们所做的就是,在音乐会期间,打开这些频率非常低的扬声器,让它们开两分半钟,然后关掉、休息两分半钟,再重新打开两分半钟,再休息两分半钟……整场音乐会都在这样的反复开关中进行。

Now, you can’t hear when the speakers are switched on. And…based on the surveys filled out after the show…and a followup study of the manipulated audio clips…neither could the concert goers. But their feet sure knew something was up.

打开低音喇叭时人们并不会听到什么特别的声音,并且,根据演出后他们填写的调查问卷以及对被操纵音频片段的后续研究,音乐会的观众对各种差别也无法分辨。但他们的脚肯定察觉到了。

What we found was, by looking at the motion capture data, people just moved more—they covered more ground, they moved faster—when the low frequency speakers were on. So this tells us that…the extra bass, these very very low frequencies, caused more moving.

通过查看动作捕捉数据,我们发现当低频喇叭打开时,人们只会移动得更多:在更大的地面面积上更快地移动。所以这告诉我们,额外的低音,这些非常非常低的频率,引起了更多的律动。

About 12 percent more moving and grooving. So, the concert…and the experiment…were a success. Best of all…

脚步移动和随之起舞大约增加了12%,某种意义上来说,这场音乐会……和实验……是成功的,最重要的是...

People enjoyed the concert. And…the more people moved, the more they enjoyed the concert.

人们喜欢这场音乐会,而且人们律动得越多,他们就越沉浸在这场音乐会中。

Which shouldn’t be a surprise.

这不足为奇。

Dancing and pleasure really go hand in hand together. It’s something we like to do with music, it’s a pleasurable response, and we show with this work that bass is part of that mix.

跳舞和快乐真的是相辅相成的,这也是我们喜欢音乐的其中一个原因,这是一种令人愉快的反应,我们通过这项工作表明低音是这些结果的一部分原因。

Next up, Cameron says he’d like to look at whether bass can help bring us together.

接下来,卡梅隆说他想研究一下低音是否能帮助我们团结起来。

So people are more likely to feel good about one another and help one another if they’ve had some experience synchronizing their movements together. And dance is a great, fun way to do this. This might be related to why we find dance in all cultures and throughout history for the human species. It’s a fundamental part of being human.

如果人们有过同步动作的经验,他们就更有可能彼此之间感觉良好并互相帮助。跳舞是一种很好的、有趣的方式,这可能与舞蹈出现在了所有文化和整个人类历史中有关,这是生而为人的一种本性。

So, to cut down on conflict, maybe just crank up the bass and cut up the dance floor.

所以,如果想减少冲突,也许只需调高低音,切入舞池。

For Scientific American’s 60-Second Science, I’m Karen Hopkin.

《科学美国人》的60秒科学,凯伦·霍普金报道。

Karen Hopkin: This is Scientific American’s 60-Second Science. I’m Karen Hopkin.

Hopkin: Ever notice that some music just really makes you want to dance?

Well, a new study shows that it is, indeed, all about the bass. Because researchers have found that, during a concert, boosting the bass bumps up the boogying. The results appear in the journal Current Biology.

Daniel Cameron: Music and musical rhythm have been kind of fascinating to me for a long time, since I was a kid. In particular, the way that they make us feel.

Hopkin: Daniel Cameron is a postdoctoral fellow at McMaster University. He also plays drums.

Cameron: As a drummer, you’re interested in making the crowd want to move and feel good and give a good pleasurable time feel. And this is related to the work I do in science.

Hopkin: Cameron and his colleagues want to understand how music can engender an almost irrepressible urge to feel our bodies in motion.

Cameron: And we knew from anecdotal evidence and other experimental evidence that there was an association between bass and dancing.

Hopkin: So, people who enjoy electronic dance music, or EDM, report that the thrumming bass produces a sensation that makes them want to move. And some studies have shown that our movements are more fine-tuned when we’re locked onto bass notes.

Cameron: So, for example, if you have people tap along to a sequence of tones, their tapping is slightly more accurate, they’re more synchronized…when those tones are low in frequency compared to high in frequency.

Hopkin: So the researchers set out to determine:

Cameron: If you add more bass to music, will it cause more dancing?

Hopkin: Now, they didn’t want to manipulate the bass line in a way that was obvious. Because then people might consciously decide to step up their stepping out.

Cameron: That might be interesting…

Hopkin: But it would also muddy the results…like if someone in a drug trial knows they’re getting the real deal and not a placebo.

Cameron: So we wanted to do a subtle manipulation, a very consciously undetectable manipulation.

Hopkin: So they broke out a set of very very low frequency speakers.

Cameron: These are specialized speakers. Kind of like sub-subwoofers. People might have subwoofers as part of their stereo system. And these are speakers that play even lower frequencies than most systems are able to do. Even lower frequencies than we think are typically able to be heard.

Hopkin: With their special speakers set up, the researchers staged a concert.

Cameron: We had the electronic music duo Orphx come to our LIVELab.

Hopkin: That’s LIVE…L-I-V-E…for large, interactive virtual environment. It’s like a cross between a performance space and a laboratory.

Cameron: The people who came to the show were fans of the group. They wanted to come and see EDM. They wanted to dance. And while they were there, we asked if they wanted to volunteer in our experiment. And a good number of people signed up.

Hopkin: Recruits adorned themselves with headbands bearing motion-capture reflectors…which the researchers used to track their movements.

Cameron: And then what we did was just, during the concert, turn these very low frequency speakers on, leave them on for two and a half minutes, turn them off. Leave them off for two and a half minutes. Back on for two and a half minutes. Off for two and a half minutes. On off on off. Throughout the concert.

Hopkin: Now, you can’t hear when the speakers are switched on. And…based on the surveys filled out after the show…and a followup study of the manipulated audio clips…neither could the concert goers. But their feet sure knew something was up.

Cameron: What we found was, by looking at the motion capture data, people just moved more—they covered more ground, they moved faster—when the low frequency speakers were on. So this tells us that…the extra bass, these very very low frequencies, caused more moving.

Hopkin: About 12 percent more moving and grooving. So, the concert…and the experiment…were a success. Best of all…

Cameron: People enjoyed the concert. And…the more people moved, the more they enjoyed the concert.

Hopkin: Which shouldn’t be a surprise.

Cameron: Dancing and pleasure really go hand in hand together. It’s something we like to do with music, it’s a pleasurable response, and we show with this work that bass is part of that mix.

Hopkin: Next up, Cameron says he’d like to look at whether bass can help bring us together.

Cameron: So people are more likely to feel good about one another and help one another if they’ve had some experience synchronizing their movements together. And dance is a great, fun way to do this. This might be related to why we find dance in all cultures and throughout history for the human species. It’s a fundamental part of being human.

Hopkin: So, to cut down on conflict, maybe just crank up the bass and cut up the dance floor.

Hopkin: For Scientific American’s 60-Second Science, I’m Karen Hopkin.


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