VOA英语学习网 > 科学美国人 > 2022年科学美国人 > 科学美国人60秒科学系列 >
缩小放大

科学美国人60秒:在热浪中,你可以吹空调,松鼠呢?

[提示:]双击单词,即可查看词义!
中英对照 听力原文

Ashleigh Papp: This is Scientific American’s 60-Second Science. I'm Ashleigh Papp.

这里是《科学美国人》的 60 秒科学。我是阿什莉·帕普。

It's summertime in New York City–birds are chirping, insects are scurrying, and everything feels alive! While recent heat waves have pushed a lot of us indoors to the respite of air conditioning, the critters of this city were left to fend for themselves.

现在是纽约市的夏季——鸟儿在啁啾,昆虫在奔跑,一切都充满活力!虽然最近的热浪迫使我们很多人在室内吹空调,但这座城市的小动物们却只能自生自灭。

Sunny Corrao: Many would be surprised that they're going to be doing the same exact things that most humans are doing... they're not going to be pushing it, they're gonna be taking their time and seeking those, you know, shadier spots in the park.

很多人会很惊讶,小动物们将会做大多数人类正在做的事情……它们不会强迫自己,它们会慢慢来,寻找那些,你知道的,公园里阴凉的地方。

Papp: Meet Sunny Corrao, an environmental scientist.

一起来认识一下环境科学家桑尼·科拉奥。

Corrao: I work with the New York City Parks Department as part of our wildlife unit, a small but mighty team that focuses on how New Yorkers can coexist with wildlife in an urban environment.

我在纽约市公园部门野生动物部门工作,这是一个小而强大的团队,专注于纽约人如何在城市环境中与野生动物共存。

Papp: From the birds and squirrels, to raccoons and even the turtles–here's how urban wildlife is responding as the mercury rises. Let's start with the birds.

从鸟类和松鼠,到浣熊,甚至是海龟——以下就是城市野生动物在温度上升时的反应。我们先从鸟类开始。

Corrao: Obviously, there are a lot of different species of birds that can be found all across the city, from your pigeons, to your larger birds of prey. And what's interesting about birds is they don't sweat through their skin, like humans and other mammals do.

很明显,整个城市都有很多不同种类的鸟类,从鸽子到大型猛禽。鸟类的有趣之处在于它们不会像人类和其他哺乳动物那样通过皮肤出汗。

Papp: Instead, birds lose heat through exposed skin–which, if you think about the last time you saw a bird in Prospect Park, there really isn't much exposed aside from their feet, legs, and beak. Sometimes, when temps really spike, birds can pant–kind of a like a dog–to get rid of their excess heat. Ultimately, these tactics help but usually aren't enough during a heat wave. So ...

相反,鸟类通过裸露的皮肤散热——你想想上次在展望公园看到鸟的时候,除了脚、腿和喙外,真的没有太多暴露的地方。有时,当温度真的飙升时,鸟类会像狗一样用喘气来排出多余的热量。最终,这些策略会有所帮助,但在热浪期间通常是不够的。所以 ...

Corrao: They'll find everything from a little puddle from a recent rainstorm ... Or maybe the hydrants that are opened down the street, to fountains and even the spray showers in our playgrounds across the city. You can find birds that will be seeking refuge in the water to kind of help cool off.

它们最终会找到想要的,从最近一场暴雨造成的小水坑……或者街道上打开的消防栓,喷泉,甚至是我们整个城市操场上的喷雾淋浴器。您可以在水中找到寻求庇护以帮助降温的鸟类。

Papp: Aquatic turtles can almost always be found near the ponds and lakes of our urban sprawl. On a normal day, you might spot a small stack of turtles near the water. This is because they're ectotherms, meaning their bodies rely on external things for heat. Piling on top of one another, or on a warm rock's surface, helps to keep the turtle's core body at a healthy temp. When things get too hot, like during NYC's recent heat wave, they change their behavior a bit. Instead, they head into the water and spread out.

在我们城市扩展的池塘和湖泊附近,几乎总能找到水生海龟。在平常的日子里,您可能会在水边发现一小堆海龟。这是因为它们是等温动物,也就是说它们的身体依靠外部事物来获取热量。相互堆叠,或在温暖的岩石表面上,有助于将龟的核心身体保持在健康的温度。当天气变得太热时,例如在纽约最近的热浪期间,它们会稍微改变自己的行为。相反,它们会进入水中并保持距离。

Corrao: Basically they're hanging out at the pool all day, they're going to be floating at the very surface of the water. So that they can still get some of the sun, but any extra heat that might be a little dangerous to their body temperature to their core temperature, they will be able to dissipate into the water.

基本上它们整天都在游泳池里呆着,它们会漂浮在水面上。这样它们仍然可以获得一些阳光,但是任何可能有一点危险的额外热量触及到它们的核心体温,它们就会迅速消散到水中。

Papp: For fur-covered critters like squirrels, cooling off in the pond or the playground water park isn't an option. When the heat rises in the city, these little mammals can be seen doing a funny posture that's known as "splooting".

对于像松鼠这样长着皮毛的小动物来说,在池塘或游乐场的水上乐园里降温是不可能的。当城市里的温度上升时,这些小哺乳动物就会摆出一种有趣的姿势,我们称为“splooting”。

Corrao: Basically that means they're just spreading out on a surface on their stomach, with their forelimbs forward and their hind legs backwards, just kind of splat on the ground.

基本上,这意味着它们是趴在一个表面上,前肢向前,后腿向后,就像扑在地上一样。

Papp: That increased skin to surface area helps squirrels dissipate more heat to the ground, which under a shady tree in Central Park, is way cooler than the ambient air.

增加的皮肤表面积有助于松鼠将更多的热量散发到地面上,在中央公园的一棵阴凉的树下,地面比周围的空气要凉爽得多。

Raccoons on the other hand, have developed a slightly different tactic–they head to parts of the park that have kind of, natural air conditioning.

另一边,浣熊已经开发出一种稍微不同的策略——它们会前往公园里有自然空调的地方。

Corrao: I certainly know of areas that are cooler than others. They kind of have these small microclimates to them, I know where the shady benches are.

我当然知道比其他地方更凉爽的地方。它们能识别一点小气候,知道阴凉的长凳在哪里。

Papp: In our most recent heat wave, Corrao noticed raccoons and humans enjoying the shade of a wooded gazebo that's in one of the cooler areas of Central Park. While the humans sought refuge on the benches below, the raccoons were softly snoozing on the lush rooftop above.

在最近的热浪中,科拉奥注意到浣熊和人类正在共享中央公园较凉爽地区之一,一个树木繁茂的凉亭。人类在下面的长椅上寻求庇护,浣熊则在上面郁郁葱葱的屋顶上轻轻打盹。

Seth Magle is an urban ecologist based in Chicago. In 2021, he started building a network of fellow urban critter enthusiasts from around the world. Collectively, they're called the Urban Wildlife Information Network. They're working to collect information in a similar way so that it can be compared across different cities.

赛斯·马格尔是芝加哥的一名城市生态学家。2021 年,他开始建立一个由来自世界各地的城市小动物爱好者组成的网络,统称为城市野生动物信息网络。他们正在努力以类似的方式收集信息,以便可以在不同城市进行比较。

Seth Magle: Ultimately, it's all with the goal of trying to create more wildlife inclusive cities, we are sort of also united by our desire to make cities part of the solution to the biodiversity crisis, and to help reduce human wildlife conflict and increase human wildlife coexistence in all of the massively urbanizing areas around the world.

归根结底,这一切都是为了创造更多包容野生动物的城市,我们也希望让城市成为生物多样性危机解决方案的一部分,帮助减少人类与野生动物的冲突,增加人类与野生动物在全球所有大规模城市化地区的共存。

Papp: In Chicago, Magle and his team have been watching their city's wildlife for about 10 years. All together, they have over 100 camera traps set up across different types of urban environments–from the downtown Loop and city parks to nature preserves and suburb golf courses. And during times of extreme heat ...

在芝加哥,马格尔和他的团队已经观察这座城市的野生动物大约10年了。他们总共在不同类型的城市环境中设置了100多个相机陷阱——从市中心的Loop和城市公园到自然保护区和郊区的高尔夫球场。在极端炎热的时候……

Magle: We do definitely seem to see reduced movement, it seems like when it gets very hot, animals just sort of hunker down where they are, it's probably so energetically difficult to move around when it's so hot.

我们确实看到它们的活动减少了,似乎当天气很热的时候,动物们就会蹲在原地,在这么热的时候移动起来可能非常困难。

Papp: Although this coping mechanism works for a short term spike in temp, it's not ideal over a longer period because it means less time to search for food or a new mate.

虽然这种应对机制对短期的气温飙升有效,但在较长时间内就不理想了,因为这意味着寻找食物或新伴侣的时间更少了。

And as Magle and his network of urban researchers look toward the future and climate change projections, they anticipate bigger shifts. Temps everywhere are projected to warm, so wildlife in urban settings and beyond will likely have to shift their normal territories a bit further north to where it feels more comfortable to what they're already used to.

当马格尔和他所在的城市研究网络展望未来、预测气候变化时,他们预计变化会更大。预计各地的温度都会变暖,因此城市和其他地方的野生动物可能不得不将它们的正常领地向北移一点,到比它们已经习惯的地方感觉更舒适的地方。

Magle: We don't have armadillos in Chicago, but we have them in the southern part of the state. And they seem to be migrating north. And so I'm starting to have to take questions about what we are going to do if there's armadillos in Chicago, right, which is unimaginable, except on a planet that is warming. There's a million other questions, I think like that, as a lot of these species, at least in this hemisphere make these kinds of northward shifts, they're going to come into contact with cities in places we didn't expect.

我们芝加哥没有犰狳(又称“铠鼠”),但在该州南部有。它们似乎正在向北迁移。因此,我开始不得不考虑如果芝加哥有犰狳,我们该怎么办,是的,这是不可想象的,除非是在一个正在变暖的星球上。还有很多其他的问题,我想,至少在这个半球,当很多物种向北迁移时,它们会在我们意想不到的地方接触到城市。

Papp: Only time will tell how our urban wildlife reacts to these longer term shifts in temperature. For now, it sounds like urban critters–so long as they're healthy–are totally capable of handling a few days of extreme heat here and there.

只有时间才能告诉我们,城市野生动物如何应对这些长期的温度变化。就目前而言,这听起来好像是说,城市小动物--只要它们健康--就完全有能力应对几天的极端高温。

Thanks for listening. For Scientific American's 60-Second Science, I’m Ashleigh Papp.

感谢收听。以上是《科学美国人》的60秒科学,我是阿什莉·帕普。

Ashleigh Papp: This is Scientific American’s 60-Second Science. I'm Ashleigh Papp.

It's summertime in New York City–birds are chirping, insects are scurrying, and everything feels alive! While recent heat waves have pushed a lot of us indoors to the respite of air conditioning, the critters of this city were left to fend for themselves.

Sunny Corrao: Many would be surprised that they're going to be doing the same exact things that most humans are doing... they're not going to be pushing it, they're gonna be taking their time and seeking those, you know, shadier spots in the park.

Papp: Meet Sunny Corrao, an environmental scientist.

Corrao: I work with the New York City Parks Department as part of our wildlife unit, a small but mighty team that focuses on how New Yorkers can coexist with wildlife in an urban environment.

Papp: From the birds and squirrels, to raccoons and even the turtles–here's how urban wildlife is responding as the mercury rises. Let's start with the birds.

Corrao: Obviously, there are a lot of different species of birds that can be found all across the city, from your pigeons, to your larger birds of prey. And what's interesting about birds is they don't sweat through their skin, like humans and other mammals do.

Papp: Instead, birds lose heat through exposed skin–which, if you think about the last time you saw a bird in Prospect Park, there really isn't much exposed aside from their feet, legs, and beak. Sometimes, when temps really spike, birds can pant–kind of a like a dog–to get rid of their excess heat. Ultimately, these tactics help but usually aren't enough during a heat wave. So ...

Corrao: They'll find everything from a little puddle from a recent rainstorm ... Or maybe the hydrants that are opened down the street, to fountains and even the spray showers in our playgrounds across the city. You can find birds that will be seeking refuge in the water to kind of help cool off.

Papp: Aquatic turtles can almost always be found near the ponds and lakes of our urban sprawl. On a normal day, you might spot a small stack of turtles near the water. This is because they're ectotherms, meaning their bodies rely on external things for heat. Piling on top of one another, or on a warm rock's surface, helps to keep the turtle's core body at a healthy temp. When things get too hot, like during NYC's recent heat wave, they change their behavior a bit. Instead, they head into the water and spread out.

Corrao: Basically they're hanging out at the pool all day, they're going to be floating at the very surface of the water. So that they can still get some of the sun, but any extra heat that might be a little dangerous to their body temperature to their core temperature, they will be able to dissipate into the water.

Papp: For fur-covered critters like squirrels, cooling off in the pond or the playground water park isn't an option. When the heat rises in the city, these little mammals can be seen doing a funny posture that's known as "splooting".

Corrao: Basically that means they're just spreading out on a surface on their stomach, with their forelimbs forward and their hind legs backwards, just kind of splat on the ground.

Papp: That increased skin to surface area helps squirrels dissipate more heat to the ground, which under a shady tree in Central Park, is way cooler than the ambient air.

Raccoons on the other hand, have developed a slightly different tactic–they head to parts of the park that have kind of, natural air conditioning.

Corrao: I certainly know of areas that are cooler than others. They kind of have these small microclimates to them, I know where the shady benches are.

Papp: In our most recent heat wave, Corrao noticed raccoons and humans enjoying the shade of a wooded gazebo that's in one of the cooler areas of Central Park. While the humans sought refuge on the benches below, the raccoons were softly snoozing on the lush rooftop above.

Seth Magle is an urban ecologist based in Chicago. In 2021, he started building a network of fellow urban critter enthusiasts from around the world. Collectively, they're called the Urban Wildlife Information Network. They're working to collect information in a similar way so that it can be compared across different cities.

Seth Magle: Ultimately, it's all with the goal of trying to create more wildlife inclusive cities, we are sort of also united by our desire to make cities part of the solution to the biodiversity crisis, and to help reduce human wildlife conflict and increase human wildlife coexistence in all of the massively urbanizing areas around the world.

Papp: In Chicago, Magle and his team have been watching their city's wildlife for about 10 years. All together, they have over 100 camera traps set up across different types of urban environments–from the downtown Loop and city parks to nature preserves and suburb golf courses. And during times of extreme heat ...

Magle: We do definitely seem to see reduced movement, it seems like when it gets very hot, animals just sort of hunker down where they are, it's probably so energetically difficult to move around when it's so hot.

Papp: Although this coping mechanism works for a short term spike in temp, it's not ideal over a longer period because it means less time to search for food or a new mate.

And as Magle and his network of urban researchers look toward the future and climate change projections, they anticipate bigger shifts. Temps everywhere are projected to warm, so wildlife in urban settings and beyond will likely have to shift their normal territories a bit further north to where it feels more comfortable to what they're already used to.

Magle: We don't have armadillos in Chicago, but we have them in the southern part of the state. And they seem to be migrating north. And so I'm starting to have to take questions about what we are going to do if there's armadillos in Chicago, right, which is unimaginable, except on a planet that is warming. There's a million other questions, I think like that, as a lot of these species, at least in this hemisphere make these kinds of northward shifts, they're going to come into contact with cities in places we didn't expect.

Papp: Only time will tell how our urban wildlife reacts to these longer term shifts in temperature. For now, it sounds like urban critters–so long as they're healthy–are totally capable of handling a few days of extreme heat here and there.

Thanks for listening. For Scientific American's 60-Second Science, I’m Ashleigh Papp.


内容来自 VOA英语学习网https://www.chinavoa.com/show-8834-243245-1.html
内容推荐
<