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VOA慢速英语:成本上升中的土耳其烟草行业

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Tobacco is one of Turkey's top agricultural products. But some of the country's tobacco farmers say rising operating costs linked to inflation are cutting deeply into their profits.

烟草是土耳其最主要的农产品之一。但是该国的一些烟农说,与通货膨胀相关的运营成本上升正在严重削减他们的利润。

In the tobacco growing area of Celikhan in the country's southeast, farm worker Mehmet Emin Calkan said people are struggling and "don't have much to live on."

在该国东南部切利汗的烟草种植区,农场工人穆罕默德·艾明·卡尔坎说,人们正在挣扎,“没有多少生活来源”

Calkan is 19 years old and hopes to go to university to study electronic engineering. But for now, he works in the fields. He told the Associated Press he sometimes works until 9 p.m. Calkan said he needs to work long days to help his family pay for the books he needs to prepare for the university entrance exam.

卡尔坎今年19岁,希望上大学学习电子工程。但目前,他在田里工作。他告诉美联社,他有时工作到晚上9点。卡尔坎说,他需要长时间工作,以帮助家人支付他准备大学入学考试所需的书本费。

The man who runs the tobacco farm is Ismail Demir. He said he is not making as much money this year because fertilizer is so costly. Fertilizer is a chemical that helps plants grow.

经营烟草农场的人是伊斯梅尔·德米尔。他说他今年没有赚多少钱,因为肥料太贵了。肥料是一种帮助植物生长的化学物质。

Other costs are high, too, such as the diesel fuel he puts into his vehicle to drive to the fields. Last year he spent about $3 to drive to work. Now it costs about $16 to travel the same distance.

其他费用也很高,比如他开车去田里的柴油。去年他开车去上班大约花3美元。现在同样的距离要花大约16美元。

The difficulties the farm owner and his worker are experiencing are happening in other industries across Turkey. The country is facing economic problems driven in part by inflation and weak currency valuations.

农场主和他的工人正在经历的困难发生在土耳其的其他行业。该国正面临经济问题,部分原因是通货膨胀和货币估值疲软。

The Turkish government announced Monday that inflation rose nearly 84 percent from a year earlier. That is the country's highest increase in 24 years. It is also the highest among the world's 20 largest economies. Independent experts say the country's actual inflation rate is much higher. The Inflation Research Group has estimated the rate is about 186 percent.

土耳其政府星期一宣布,通货膨胀率比一年前上升了近84%。这是该国24年来的最高增幅,也是世界上20个最大经济体中最高的。独立专家说,土耳其的实际通货膨胀率要高得多。通货膨胀研究小组估计,通货膨胀率约为186%。

The largest increases are costs for transportation, food and non-alcoholic drinks.

增幅最大的是交通、食品和非酒精饮料的费用。

Some countries are seeing price increases because of economic slowdowns related to the COVID-19 pandemic and the invasion of Ukraine by Russia.

由于与 COVID-19 大流行和俄乌冲突有关的经济放缓,一些国家的价格正在上涨。

But economists who study Turkey say the country's economic problems are mostly linked to financial policy mistakes made by the government.

但研究土耳其的经济学家表示,该国的经济问题大多与政府犯下的金融政策错误有关。

For example, Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdogan has said he believes higher costs for borrowing money leads to higher prices. Most economists, however, believe the opposite is true. But because of the president's pressure, the Turkish central bank has lowered the cost of borrowing.

例如,土耳其总统雷杰普·塔伊普·埃尔多安表示,他认为借款成本上升会导致物价上涨。然而,大多数经济学家认为事实恰恰相反。但是由于总统的压力,土耳其央行降低了借款成本。

When the bank recently lowered the cost of borrowing by one percent, to 12 percent, it weakened Turkey's money, the lira. The currency has lost more than 50 percent of its value since 2021.

当该银行最近将借贷成本降低 1% 至 12% 时,它削弱了土耳其的货币里拉。自 2021 年以来,该货币已贬值 50% 以上。

Erdogan is up for election in June 2023. He has said his government is centering on measures aimed at increasing exports and driving economic growth. Such policies have already helped save 10 million jobs, the president claims.

埃尔多安将于 2023 年 6 月竞选。他曾表示,他的政府正集中于旨在增加出口和推动经济增长的措施。总统声称,这些政策已经帮助挽救了 1000 万个工作岗位。

In a recent speech, Erdogan said the interest rate "has to go down further." He suggested this will cause inflation to drop as well.

埃尔多安在最近的一次讲话中表示,利率“必须进一步下降”。他认为这也将导致通胀下降。

The Turkish government has put a number of policies in place to help people deal with inflation. It increased the minimum wage, put in a limit on rent increases and reduced taxes on energy bills. But even with the policies, people are having trouble keeping up with basic living costs, also called expenses.

土耳其政府制定了多项政策来帮助人们应对通货膨胀。提高最低工资,限制租金上涨,并减少能源账单税。但即使有了这些政策,人们也难以跟上基本生活成本,也称为开支。

Another tobacco grower in Celikhan is Ibrahim Suna. He said he is currently struggling to support his family. "Tobacco is our only means of living, and we have no other income," Suna said. He has five children.

切利汗的另一个烟草种植者是易卜拉欣·苏纳。他说,他目前正在努力养家糊口。“烟草是我们唯一的生活手段,我们没有其他收入,”苏纳说。他有五个孩子。

Suna said he expects to earn about $5,400 this year from a harvest of 400 kilograms of tobacco. But, he noted, "half of it will go to expenses."

苏纳说,他预计今年收割 400 公斤烟草可赚取约 5,400 美元。但是,他指出,“其中一半将用于支出。”

I'm Dan Friedell.

丹·弗里德尔报道。

Tobacco is one of Turkey's top agricultural products. But some of the country's tobacco farmers say rising operating costs linked to inflation are cutting deeply into their profits.

In the tobacco growing area of Celikhan in the country's southeast, farm worker Mehmet Emin Calkan said people are struggling and "don't have much to live on."

Calkan is 19 years old and hopes to go to university to study electronic engineering. But for now, he works in the fields. He told the Associated Press he sometimes works until 9 p.m. Calkan said he needs to work long days to help his family pay for the books he needs to prepare for the university entrance exam.

The man who runs the tobacco farm is Ismail Demir. He said he is not making as much money this year because fertilizer is so costly. Fertilizer is a chemical that helps plants grow.

Other costs are high, too, such as the diesel fuel he puts into his vehicle to drive to the fields. Last year he spent about $3 to drive to work. Now it costs about $16 to travel the same distance.

The difficulties the farm owner and his worker are experiencing are happening in other industries across Turkey. The country is facing economic problems driven in part by inflation and weak currency valuations.

The Turkish government announced Monday that inflation rose nearly 84 percent from a year earlier. That is the country's highest increase in 24 years. It is also the highest among the world's 20 largest economies. Independent experts say the country's actual inflation rate is much higher. The Inflation Research Group has estimated the rate is about 186 percent.

The largest increases are costs for transportation, food and non-alcoholic drinks.

Some countries are seeing price increases because of economic slowdowns related to the COVID-19 pandemic and the invasion of Ukraine by Russia.

But economists who study Turkey say the country's economic problems are mostly linked to financial policy mistakes made by the government.

For example, Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdogan has said he believes higher costs for borrowing money leads to higher prices. Most economists, however, believe the opposite is true. But because of the president's pressure, the Turkish central bank has lowered the cost of borrowing.

When the bank recently lowered the cost of borrowing by one percent, to 12 percent, it weakened Turkey's money, the lira. The currency has lost more than 50 percent of its value since 2021.

Erdogan is up for election in June 2023. He has said his government is centering on measures aimed at increasing exports and driving economic growth. Such policies have already helped save 10 million jobs, the president claims.

In a recent speech, Erdogan said the interest rate "has to go down further." He suggested this will cause inflation to drop as well.

The Turkish government has put a number of policies in place to help people deal with inflation. It increased the minimum wage, put in a limit on rent increases and reduced taxes on energy bills. But even with the policies, people are having trouble keeping up with basic living costs, also called expenses.

Another tobacco grower in Celikhan is Ibrahim Suna. He said he is currently struggling to support his family. "Tobacco is our only means of living, and we have no other income," Suna said. He has five children.

Suna said he expects to earn about $5,400 this year from a harvest of 400 kilograms of tobacco. But, he noted, "half of it will go to expenses."

I'm Dan Friedell.

Dan Friedell adapted this story for VOA Learning English based on a report by The Associated Press.

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Words in This Story

currency -n. money used by a country

minimum wage -n. the lowest amount of money per hour permitted to be paid to workers according to law

rent -n. money that you pay in return for being able to use property and especially to live in an apartment that belongs to someone else

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