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VOA慢速英语:研究人员发现了最古老的玛雅计时系统

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Scientists in Guatemala believe they have found the earliest example of the Mayan calendar inside the remains of an ancient building.

危地马拉科学家认为,他们在一座古代建筑的遗迹中发现了最早的玛雅历法。

The archeologists found pictures, called glyphs, from a Mayan pyramid.The glyph represents the day called "7 deer." It is one of 260 days with special names in the Mayan calendar.

考古学家在玛雅金字塔上发现了被称为象形文字的图画。这个象形文字代表“七只鹿”这一天,是玛雅日历中有特殊名字的260天之一。

The researchers believe the glyph is over 2,200 years old.It shows the Mayan writing for the number seven above a picture of an animal called a deer.

研究人员认为,这个字形已经有2200多年的历史了,显示了玛雅人在一种叫做鹿的动物的图片上写的数字7。

The picture came from a wall painting inside the pyramid known as Las Pinturas.It is in San Bartolo, an ancient Mayan place that became famous in 2001 when archaeologists found a buried room that contained colorful wall paintings, or murals.

这幅画来自名为拉斯平图拉斯的金字塔内的一幅壁画。它位于圣巴托罗,一个古老的玛雅遗址,2001年考古学家发现了这个被埋在地下的房间,里面有五颜六色的壁画。

Those murals are thought to be about 2,100 years old.They show images of ceremonies and the ancient stories of the Mayan people.

这些壁画已有大约2100年的历史,展示了当时仪式的场景、以及玛雅人的古老故事。

The deer glyph came from the same Las Pinturas pyramid.But it is older.

鹿的象形文字来自同一个拉斯皮图拉斯金字塔,但更古老。

Researchers believe the Mayans built smaller religious structures and then built the pyramids on top of them.

研究人员认为,玛雅人先是建造了较小的宗教建筑,然后在上面建造了金字塔。

David Stuart is a professor of Central American art and writing from the University of Texas.He wrote about the discovery in the publication Science Advances.

大卫·斯图尔特是德克萨斯大学中美洲艺术与写作教授,他在《科学进展》上发表了这一发现。

He said the pieces from the mural fit in your hand, but they were once attached to a stone wall.He said the wall was torn down when the ancient workers were building the newer space that became the pyramid.

他说,壁画上的碎片很适合手持,但它们曾经被固定在一堵石墙上,这堵墙是在古代工人建造金字塔的时候被拆除的。

He said the paintings from the older period are all broken up, unlike the newer murals found in 2001.

他说,与2001年发现的新壁画不同,这些较早时期的壁画都已破碎。

Until the discovery, the oldest known example of the Mayan calendar came from about 2,100 years ago.

在这一发现之前,已知的最古老的玛雅历法来自大约2100年前。

The calendar is thought to be one of the top achievements of Mayan culture.It followed the movement of the sun, moon and planets and was based on a 260-day cycle.The Mayans also counted time based on the sun and considered one year to be 365 days.There was also a system based on the moon.

这一历法被认为是玛雅文化的最高成就之一,它遵循太阳、月亮和行星的运动,以260天为一个周期。玛雅人也根据太阳计算时间,认为一年是365天。还有一个以月球为基础的系统。

The Mayans had a system of 800 glyphs.The earliest examples come from San Bartolo in the forest of northern Guatemala.The place was important to early Mayan society for over 600 years, until about 1,800 years ago.

玛雅人有800个象形文字系统。最早的样本来自危地马拉北部森林的圣巴托罗。 在600多年的时间里,这个地方一直是早期玛雅社会的重要组成部分,直到1800年前。

About 7,000 mural pieces have been found at San Bartolo.Some are as small as a fingernail, and others are over 400 square centimeters.

在圣巴托罗发现了大约7000件壁画。有的像指甲一样小,有的则超过400平方厘米。

Heather Hurst of Skidmore College in New York state is a co-writer of the study.She called the pieces a "giant jigsaw puzzle."

纽约州斯基德莫尔学院的希瑟·赫斯特是这项研究的合著者。她称这些碎片为“巨大的拼图”。

The notation of "7 deer" and other calendar glyphs are shown on 11 mural pieces from San Bartolo.Researchers say that means the calendar was in use for a long time before the murals were built.

圣巴托罗的11幅壁画上显示了“7只鹿”和其他历法符号。研究人员表示,这意味着在壁画建造之前,日历就已经使用了很长一段时间。

As a result, Hurst believes older examples of glyphs from the calendar might be found in other places.Hurst said the cultures "well-established tradition of writing and art" shown on the mural pieces was "impressive."

因此,赫斯特认为,日历中更古老的符号可能在其他地方发现。赫斯特说,壁画作品上所展示的这种文化“良好的写作和艺术传统”令人“印象深刻”。

Some Mayan communities still use the ancient calendar.

一些玛雅社区仍然使用古老的历法。

Stuart said the calendar has been used for at least 2,200 years, even during times of "incredible change, stress and tragedy."

斯图尔特说,这种日历至少已经使用了2200年,甚至在“令人难以置信的变化、压力和悲剧”的时期也是如此。

Im Dan Friedell.

丹·弗里德尔报道。

Scientists in Guatemala believe they have found the earliest example of the Mayan calendar inside the remains of an ancient building.

The archeologists found pictures, called glyphs, from a Mayan pyramid. The glyph represents the day called "7 deer." It is one of 260 days with special names in the Mayan calendar.

The researchers believe the glyph is over 2,200 years old. It shows the Mayan writing for the number seven above a picture of an animal called a deer.

The picture came from a wall painting inside the pyramid known as Las Pinturas. It is in San Bartolo, an ancient Mayan place that became famous in 2001 when archaeologists found a buried room that contained colorful wall paintings, or murals.

Those murals are thought to be about 2,100 years old. They show images of ceremonies and the ancient stories of the Mayan people.

The deer glyph came from the same Las Pinturas pyramid. But it is older.

Researchers believe the Mayans built smaller religious structures and then built the pyramids on top of them.

David Stuart is a professor of Central American art and writing from the University of Texas. He wrote about the discovery in the publication Science Advances.

He said the pieces from the mural fit in your hand, but they were once attached to a stone wall. He said the wall was torn down when the ancient workers were building the newer space that became the pyramid.

He said the paintings from the older period are all broken up, unlike the newer murals found in 2001.

Until the discovery, the oldest known example of the Mayan calendar came from about 2,100 years ago.

The calendar is thought to be one of the top achievements of Mayan culture. It followed the movement of the sun, moon and planets and was based on a 260-day cycle. The Mayans also counted time based on the sun and considered one year to be 365 days. There was also a system based on the moon.

The Mayans had a system of 800 glyphs. The earliest examples come from San Bartolo in the forest of northern Guatemala. The place was important to early Mayan society for over 600 years, until about 1,800 years ago.

About 7,000 mural pieces have been found at San Bartolo. Some are as small as a fingernail, and others are over 400 square centimeters.

Heather Hurst of Skidmore College in New York state is a co-writer of the study. She called the pieces a "giant jigsaw puzzle."

The notation of "7 deer" and other calendar glyphs are shown on 11 mural pieces from San Bartolo. Researchers say that means the calendar was in use for a long time before the murals were built.

As a result, Hurst believes older examples of glyphs from the calendar might be found in other places. Hurst said the culture's "well-established tradition of writing and art" shown on the mural pieces was "impressive."

Some Mayan communities still use the ancient calendar.

Stuart said the calendar has been used for at least 2,200 years, even during times of "incredible change, stress and tragedy."

I'm Dan Friedell.

Will Dunham reported this story for Reuters. Dan Friedell adapted it for VOA Learning English.

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Words in This Story

calendar -n. a system for organizing the days of the year by month

archeologist -n. a scientist who studies past human life by looking at bones, tools and structures of ancient people

pyramid - n. a large structure with a square base and sides shaped like triangles

achievement - n. something that has been done or created through great effort and hard work

cycle - n. a series of events that happen again and again

jigsaw puzzle - n. a game made of small pieces cut into shapes that fit together to form a picture

stress - n. a state of mental tension and worry caused by problems and difficulties

tragedy - n. a sad or terrible event


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