VOA英语学习网 > 科学美国人 > 2021年科学美国人 > 科学美国人60秒科学系列 >
缩小放大

科学美国人60秒:维京人首次穿越大西洋的日期由太空射线揭示

[提示:]双击单词,即可查看词义!
中英对照 听力原文

Christopher Intagliata:Exactly 1,000 years ago, in the year 1021, a Viking or two or three likely wandered around the very northern tip of Newfoundland, cutting down trees ...

Christopher Intagliata:整整1000年前,也就是 1021年,可能有一两三个维京人在纽芬兰的最北端游荡,砍伐树木……

Michael Dee: ... for clearing a particular spot or for gathering wood that might have been used as timber for construction or for boat repair. They were careful to make sure their ships were seaworthy.

Dee:人们不太确定冰岛的传奇故事能有几分真实。它们不仅包含很多不准确的地方,还有很多显然是荒谬的东西——比如死人对他们说话等等。

Intagliata: Michael Dee is a geoscientist at the University of Groningen in the Netherlands. He says it's not news that the Vikings made it to North America around this time. Scientists and scholars have surmised as much from archaeological remains in Newfoundland and by scrutinizing ancient texts like the Icelandic sagas.

Intagliata:但是现在Dee和他的同事们已经能够根据这些北欧游客留下的证据得出一个精确的日期——1021年:具体来说,是一根树桩、一根圆木和一根树枝。木材解剖学家已经确定,这种木材的某些表面一定是被金属刀片切割过的——当地土著人不知道这种维京技术。

Dee: One is not really sure how literal one can take the Icelandic sagas. They contain a lot of not only inaccuracies, a lot of things that are obviously fantastical—things like dead people speaking to them, and so on.

Dee 的团队能够利用一次宇宙事件——993年左右来自太空的一次非凡的高能粒子雨——来确定树木被砍伐的日期。你看,宇宙射线的阵雨产生了大量的放射性碳。当被树木吸收后,就会在年轮中留下持久的印记——这就为科学家们提供了一把钥匙,可以使用放射性碳测年法确定三个木材样本中的993年的关键信息。

Intagliata: But now Dee and his colleagues have been able to come up with a precise date—the year 1021—based on evidence these Norse visitors left behind: specifically, a stump, a log and a branch. Wood anatomists have determined that certain surfaces of that wood must have been cut by metal blades—a Viking technology the local Indigenous people are not known to have shared.

Dee:然后我们要做的就是从那里开始数环。你必须知道边缘在哪里,树皮的边缘。然后你就会知道那是这棵树的最后一个生长年份,或者说是这棵树的砍伐日期。现在这三种情况都发生在同一年:公元1021年。

And Dee’s team was able to use a cosmic occurrence—an extraordinary shower of high-energy particles from space around the year 993—to date the felling of the trees. You see, that shower of cosmic rays created an abundance of radiocarbon. When taken up by trees, it left a lasting signature in tree rings—giving the scientists a key to pinpoint the year 993 in the three wood samples using radiocarbon dating.

Intagliata:详情发表在《自然》杂志上。[Margot Kuitems 等人,公元1021年欧洲存在于美洲的证据]

Dee: And then you see what we have to do is count the rings from there to the edge. You have to know where the edge is, the bark edge. And then you’ll know that was the last growth year of the tree, or the felling date of the tree. And it just so happened in all three cases it was exactly the same year: 1021 A.D.

因此,1021年标志着我们第一次知道欧洲人踏足美洲。但正如作者所写,它也标志着“人类迁徙环绕地球的最早年份”。

Intagliata: The details are in the journal Nature. [Margot Kuitems et al., Evidence for European presence in the Americas in AD 1021]

Dee:自从有人类离开非洲,到穿越欧洲和亚洲,再到穿越美洲,却没有记录有人类越过大西洋,所以现在,这是我们知道的人类第一次穿越大西洋。

The year 1021 therefore marks the first time we know of that Europeans set foot in the Americas. But as the authors write, it also marks “the earliest known year by which human migration had encircled the planet.”

Intagliata:但是——正如我们知道的——这不会是最后一次。

Dee: Ever since moving out of Africa through Europe and Asia and across the Americas, nobody had got across the Atlantic Ocean, so by this date, we know the Atlantic Ocean was crossed for the first time.

Intagliata: But—as we know—it wouldn’t be the last.

Christopher Intagliata:Exactly 1,000 years ago, in the year 1021, a Viking or two or three likely wandered around the very northern tip of Newfoundland, cutting down trees ...

Michael Dee: ... for clearing a particular spot or for gathering wood that might have been used as timber for construction or for boat repair. They were careful to make sure their ships were seaworthy.

Intagliata: Michael Dee is a geoscientist at the University of Groningen in the Netherlands. He says it's not news that the Vikings made it to North America around this time. Scientists and scholars have surmised as much from archaeological remains in Newfoundland and by scrutinizing ancient texts like the Icelandic sagas.

Dee: One is not really sure how literal one can take the Icelandic sagas. They contain a lot of not only inaccuracies, a lot of things that are obviously fantastical—things like dead people speaking to them, and so on.

Intagliata: But now Dee and his colleagues have been able to come up with a precise date—the year 1021—based on evidence these Norse visitors left behind: specifically, a stump, a log and a branch. Wood anatomists have determined that certain surfaces of that wood must have been cut by metal blades—a Viking technology the local Indigenous people are not known to have shared.

And Dee’s team was able to use a cosmic occurrence—an extraordinary shower of high-energy particles from space around the year 993—to date the felling of the trees. You see, that shower of cosmic rays created an abundance of radiocarbon. When taken up by trees, it left a lasting signature in tree rings—giving the scientists a key to pinpoint the year 993 in the three wood samples using radiocarbon dating.

Dee: And then you see what we have to do is count the rings from there to the edge. You have to know where the edge is, the bark edge. And then you’ll know that was the last growth year of the tree, or the felling date of the tree. And it just so happened in all three cases it was exactly the same year: 1021 A.D.

Intagliata: The details are in the journal Nature. [Margot Kuitems et al., Evidence for European presence in the Americas in AD 1021]

The year 1021 therefore marks the first time we know of that Europeans set foot in the Americas. But as the authors write, it also marks “the earliest known year by which human migration had encircled the planet.”

Dee: Ever since moving out of Africa through Europe and Asia and across the Americas, nobody had got across the Atlantic Ocean, so by this date, we know the Atlantic Ocean was crossed for the first time.

Intagliata: But—as we know—it wouldn’t be the last.


内容来自 VOA英语学习网https://www.chinavoa.com/show-8817-242940-1.html
内容推荐
<