VOA英语学习网 > 科学美国人 > 2020年科学美国人 > 科学美国人60秒科学系列 >
缩小放大

科学美国人60秒:人们能通过声音识别传染病吗?

关注 听力课堂微信 (tingclass123),获取更多英语听力资料。
[提示:]双击单词,即可查看词义!如果生词较多,请先学习:VOA慢速英语1500基础词汇
中英对照 听力原文

Can People ID Infectious Disease by Cough and Sneeze Sounds?

You’re at the supermarket trying to choose a ripe tomato when, behind you, you hear ...

你正在超市里挑选一个成熟的西红柿,这时,听到身后传来……

If you’re like most people, you probably hold your breath, tighten your mask and hope you don’t catch whatever Patient Zero is spraying over the fresh produce. And if you’re like most people, chances are you’re overreacting, because a new study shows that we’re not very skilled when it comes to diagnosing infectiousness based on the sound of a sneeze or cough. The work is in the Proceedings of the Royal Society: Biological Sciences.

和大多数人一样,你可能会屏住呼吸,戴紧口罩,希望自己不会染到“零号病人”喷洒在新鲜农产品上的病毒。如果你是这样做的,那么你可能反应过度了。因为一项新的研究表明,根据打喷嚏或咳嗽的声音诊断传染性方面,研究并不成熟。这项研究发表在《英国皇家学会学报:生物科学》上。

Previous studies have shown that folks can tell when someone is sick based on how they look or, in some cases, how they smell. So it’s only natural to wonder whether the same would hold true for an assessment with our ears.

之前的研究表明,人们可以根据一个人的长相,或者在某些情况下,根据气味判断他是否生病了。所以很自然地,我们就会想,用耳朵来进行评估是否也同样适用。

So researchers asked volunteers to listen to audio clips of people hacking and sneezing.

因此,研究人员让志愿者们听一些人们咳嗽和打喷嚏的音频片段。

“Half of the coughs and sneezes were produced by someone with an infectious illness, like the flu or the common cold. And half were produced by benign causes like eating too much cinnamon all at once or sticking a Q-tip up their noses.”

“一半的咳嗽和打喷嚏是由流感或普通感冒等传染病引起的。还有一半是由良性原因产生的,比如一次吃了太多肉桂粉,或者用棉签塞住鼻子。”

Nicholas Michalak, a grad student in social psychology at the University of Michigan.

密歇根大学社会心理学研究生尼古拉斯·马克拉克(Nicholas Michalak)说。

“We clipped these sounds from YouTube videos in which people told their audience that they were sick. Many reported having been diagnosed by a medical professional. All this said, we could not directly confirm whether people in our sound clips were infectious or not.”

“我们从YouTube视频中剪辑了人们告诉观众自己生病的声音。许多人报告说,他们已经得到了医学专业人员的诊断。所有这些都表明,我们无法直接确认音频片段中的人是否具有传染性。”

And what he found?

他发现了什么?

“Across four studies of over 600 participants in total, on average, people guessed four out of 10 sounds correctly, which is consistent with random guessing. In other words, they weren’t very good at judging whether the sounds were infected.”

在四项涉及600多名参与者的研究中,平均而言,人们猜对了10个声音中的4个,这与随机猜测的结果是一致的。换句话说,人们并不太擅长根据声音判断人体是否生病。”

But being bad judges didn’t dampen their confidence. When asked how sure they were about their guesses, on a scale of 1 to 9. participants reported an average certainty of 7.

但错误的评判并没有打击他们的信心。当被问及对自己的猜测有多肯定时,参与者的平均肯定度为7分。

“Interestingly, we didn’t find any evidence that people who were more certain about their guesses were more or less likely to guess correctly.”

有趣的是,我们并没有发现任何证据表明,猜测胜算的机率变大。”

So what made them so sure that certain sounds were sure signs of disease? Well, the sickies, they figured, made noises that seemed the most gross.

那么是什么让他们如此确信某些声音是疾病的征兆呢?人们认为,生病的人发出的声音似乎是最恶心的。

“The more disgusting they perceived a sound, the more likely they were to judge it infectious.”

“人们对声音的反感程度越高,就越有可能认为具有传染性。”

So ...

所以……

... might be deemed more contagious than ...

…可能会被认为比…

... depending on your own personal nasty-o-meter.

…这要看你个人的讨厌程度了。

All that’s to say ...

也就是说……

“Even if it seems you can tell whether a cough or sneeze is infectious, based on how disgusting it sounds, that feeling has the potential to mislead you.”

“即使看起来你可以根据咳嗽或打喷嚏听起来有多恶心来判断它是否具有传染性,这种感觉也有可能误导你。

In other words, you can’t judge a bug by its cougher.

换句话说,你不能通过咳嗽声来判断。

Can People ID Infectious Disease by Cough and Sneeze Sounds?

You’re at the supermarket trying to choose a ripe tomato when, behind you, you hear ...

[CLIP: Cough sound]

If you’re like most people, you probably hold your breath, tighten your mask and hope you don’t catch whatever Patient Zero is spraying over the fresh produce. And if you’re like most people, chances are you’re overreacting, because a new study shows that we’re not very skilled when it comes to diagnosing infectiousness based on the sound of a sneeze or cough. The work is in the Proceedings of the Royal Society: Biological Sciences.

Previous studies have shown that folks can tell when someone is sick based on how they look or, in some cases, how they smell. So it’s only natural to wonder whether the same would hold true for an assessment with our ears.

So researchers asked volunteers to listen to audio clips of people hacking and sneezing.

“Half of the coughs and sneezes were produced by someone with an infectious illness, like the flu or the common cold. And half were produced by benign causes like eating too much cinnamon all at once or sticking a Q-tip up their noses.”

Nicholas Michalak, a grad student in social psychology at the University of Michigan.

“We clipped these sounds from YouTube videos in which people told their audience that they were sick. Many reported having been diagnosed by a medical professional. All this said, we could not directly confirm whether people in our sound clips were infectious or not.”

And what he found?

“Across four studies of over 600 participants in total, on average, people guessed four out of 10 sounds correctly, which is consistent with random guessing. In other words, they weren’t very good at judging whether the sounds were infected.”

But being bad judges didn’t dampen their confidence. When asked how sure they were about their guesses, on a scale of 1 to 9. participants reported an average certainty of 7.

“Interestingly, we didn’t find any evidence that people who were more certain about their guesses were more or less likely to guess correctly.”

So what made them so sure that certain sounds were sure signs of disease? Well, the sickies, they figured, made noises that seemed the most gross.

“The more disgusting they perceived a sound, the more likely they were to judge it infectious.”

So ...

... might be deemed more contagious than ...

... depending on your own personal nasty-o-meter.

All that’s to say ...

“Even if it seems you can tell whether a cough or sneeze is infectious, based on how disgusting it sounds, that feeling has the potential to mislead you.”

In other words, you can’t judge a bug by its cougher.


内容来自 VOA英语学习网https://www.chinavoa.com/show-8797-242503-1.html
Related Articles
内容推荐