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科学美国人60秒:生病的吸血蝙蝠只允许近亲接触

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Sick Vampire Bats Restrict Grooming to Close Family

生病的吸血蝙蝠只允许近亲接触

Epidemiologists have long known that socially connected individuals like friends, family, and co-workers, are more likely to transmit pathogens to each other. But when an individual becomes obviously ill, their social connections become temporarily reduced: when we feel sick we tend to stay away from others. And when we appear sick, others tend to stay away from us. That distancing usually helps to slow down the spread of a pathogen.

流行病学家早就知道,像朋友、家人和同事这样的社会关系密切的人,更有可能将病原体传播给彼此。但当一个人明显生病时,他们的社会联系会暂时减少:当我们感到自己生病时,往往会远离他人。当我们生病时,其他人往往也会远离我们。这种距离通常有助于减缓病原体的传播。

But not all social relationships work the same way. Parents of sick children will continue to care for those children at the risk of their own health. And that devotion is true beyond humans. Consider vampire bats. They usually groom their own offspring as well as other bats. And they share food. But illness changes some of those activities.

但并不是所有的社会关系都是这样运作的。患病儿童的父母将继续照顾有健康风险的儿童。这种虔诚超越了人类。想想吸血蝙蝠。它们通常会给自己的后代和其他蝙蝠梳理毛发、分享食物。但是疾病改变了其中的一些活动。

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To track illness and behavior in a vampire bat community, researchers injected some bats with a substance that triggered their immune systems—the bats felt less well than usual without actually suffering from a disease. In this situation, unrelated bats stopped grooming each other. But mothers continued to care for their offspring, even if one of them seemed to be infected.

为了追踪吸血蝙蝠群落的疾病和行为,研究人员给一些蝙蝠注射了一种能触发它们免疫系统的物质——蝙蝠感觉比平时要差,但实际上并没有患病。在这种情况下,不相关的蝙蝠停止互相梳理毛发。但是母亲们继续照顾自己的孩子,即使其中一个似乎被感染了。

"In these changes in grooming, there was a difference between unrelated bats and maternal relationships. So what it looked like was that sick moms kept grooming their offspring, and healthy moms maintained grooming their sick offspring… Whereas we saw reductions between unrelated bats."Sebastian Stockmaier, a graduate student in integrative biology at the University of Texas at Austin who led the study. Food sharing was different.

“在这些仪容方面的变化中,不相关的蝙蝠和母性关系之间存在差异。所以是这样的,生病的母亲会不停地给它们的后代梳理毛发,而健康的母亲会不停地给它们生病的后代梳理毛发……得克萨斯大学奥斯汀分校综合生物学研究生塞巴斯蒂安·斯托克迈尔领导了这项研究。食物共享是不同的。

"So it looked like sick bats still received food from others but they were groomed less by others. And so there are these infection-induced changes to social behaviors caused by these sickness behaviors, but they might vary depending on what behavior you actually observe."So not only does the type of relationship matter, but the type of behavior does as well. It’s as if the bats set up this sick time rule: I’ll feed you by regurgitating a blood meal into your mouth—but that's it.The study was in the Journal of Animal Ecology.

“所以看起来病蝙蝠仍然从其他蝙蝠那里得到食物,但是它们被其他蝙蝠照顾得更少了。所以这些由感染引起的社会行为变化是由这些疾病行为引起的,但是它们可能会根据你实际观察到的行为而有所不同。所以不仅关系的类型很重要,行为的类型也很重要。这就好像是蝙蝠制定了生病时间规则:我将把血粉倒进你的嘴里喂你——但仅此而已。这项研究发表在《动物生态学杂志》上。

The social relationships among vampire bats work a lot like human friendships. And when trying to understand the spread of infectious diseases through social networks, says Stockmaier, vampire bats teach us that the type of relationship and the type of interaction are important variables to consider.

吸血蝙蝠之间的社会关系很像人类的友谊。斯托克迈尔说,当我们试图通过社交网络了解传染病的传播时,吸血蝙蝠告诉我们,人际关系的类型和相互作用的类型是需要考虑的重要变量。

Sick Vampire Bats Restrict Grooming to Close Family

Epidemiologists have long known that socially connected individuals like friends, family and co-workers are more likely to transmit pathogens to each other. But when an individual becomes obviously ill, their social connections become temporarily reduced: When we feel sick, we tend to stay away from others. And when we appear sick, others tend to stay away from us. That distancing usually helps to slow down the spread of a pathogen.

But not all social relationships work the same way. Parents of sick children will continue to care for those children at the risk of their own health. And that devotion is true beyond humans. Consider vampire bats. They usually groom their own offspring as well as other bats. And they share food. But illness changes some of those activities.

To track illness and behavior in a vampire bat community, researchers injected some bats with a substance that triggered their immune systems—the bats felt less well than usual without actually suffering from a disease.

In this situation, unrelated bats stopped grooming each other. But mothers continued to care for their offspring, even if one of them seemed to be infected.

“In these changes in grooming, there was a difference between unrelated bats and maternal relationships. So what it looked like was that sick moms kept grooming their offspring, and healthy moms maintained grooming their sick offspring. Whereas we saw reductions between unrelated bats.”

Sebastian Stockmaier, a graduate student in integrative biology at the University of Texas at Austin, who led the study. Food sharing was different.

“So it looked like sick bats still received food from others, but they were groomed less by others. And so there are these infection-induced changes to social behaviors caused by these sickness behaviors, but they might vary, depending on what behavior you actually observe.”

So not only does the type of relationship matter, but the type of behavior does as well. It’s as if the bats set up this sick-time rule: I’ll feed you by regurgitating a blood meal into your mouth—but that’s it.

The study was in the Journal of Animal Ecology.

The social relationships among vampire bats work a lot like human friendships. And when trying to understand the spread of infectious diseases through social networks, says Stockmaier, vampire bats teach us that the type of relationship and the type of interaction are important variables to consider.


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