VOA英语学习网 > 科学美国人 > 2020年科学美国人 > 科学美国人60秒科学系列 >
缩小放大

科学美国人60秒: 新型冠状病毒:如何及为何传播如此迅速

[提示:]双击单词,即可查看词义!如果生词较多,请先学习:VOA慢速英语1500基础词汇
中英对照 听力原文

COVID-19: How and Why the Virus Spreads Quickly

新型冠状病毒:如何及为何传播如此迅速

This is another in our series of coronavirus episodes of Scientific American's Science Talk, posted on March 23, 2020. I'm Steve Mirsky.

这是《科学美国人》科学讲座中关于冠状病毒的另一个系列,发表于2020年3月23日。我是史蒂夫·米尔斯基。

In this two-part episode, our contributing editor W. Wayt Gibbs in Washington State—a state hit early and hard by COVID-19—reports on scientists' fast-evolving understanding of this new coronavirus and the probable trajectory of this pandemic.

在这个分为两部分的节目中,我们的特约编辑W. Wayt Gibbs在华盛顿州——新冠肺炎早期重创的州——报道了为何新冠肺炎扩散如此之快以及后续可能发展的轨迹。

Today, in part one, he focuses on why the new coronavirus is spreading so quickly and is so difficult to control.

今天,在第一部分中,他着重解释了为什么这种新型冠状病毒传播如此迅速,又如此难以控制。

Check back in tomorrow for part two, when Gibbs looks at computer models that are predicting how long we'll need to shut down large parts of society to prevent hospitals from being overwhelmed. He also looks at how emerging tests for immunity to the virus could pose thorny ethical issues in the months to come.

明天会有第二部分,吉布斯将研究计算机模型,这些模型预测我们需要将关闭社区多长时间才能避免医院人满为患。他还研究了新出现病毒的免疫测试如何在未来几个月引发棘手的伦理问题。

Wayt recorded this episode on March 22. The first voice you hear: Governor Jay Inslee of Washington.

Wayt在3月22日录制了这一集。你听到的第一个声音是:华盛顿州长杰伊·英斯利。

JI: "It is not rhetorical or hyperbolic when I say that everyone needs to change their behavior, change the way that we live—temporarily—if we are going to prevent significant loss of life for the people we love in the state of Washington. And when I say everyone, I mean, frankly, everyone. Because we all are potential transmitters of this virus, and we all, to some varying degree, are potential victims of this virus."

华盛顿州长杰伊:毫不夸张的说,如果要防止华盛顿州我们所爱的人避免重大生命损失,每个人都需要改变自身行为,改变暂时生活的方式。当我说每个人,坦白地说,就是所有人。因为我们都是这种病毒的潜在传播者,在某种程度上,我们也都是这种病毒的潜在受害者。”

WWG: That was Governor Jay Inslee, pleading with people in my state on March 20 to stay home and stay away from each other. All around the U.S.—and around the world—governors and mayors and prime ministers are urging, begging—in many places even ordering—their citizens to shelter in place.

WWG:这是州长杰伊·英斯利在3月20日向我所在州的人们发出的呼吁,希望人们呆在家里,保持距离。全美国。在世界各地,州长、市长和总理们都在敦促,甚至在许多地方甚至命令本国公民就地避难。

But it's not easy to resist our hardwired desires to spend time with our friends, to visit our parents and grandparents, to go to work.

但是,我们很难抗拒与朋友共度时光、看望长辈、工作的欲望。

So here in Washington, like in lots of other places, compliance has been—kind of spotty. Traffic on some of the major highways here—a good proxy for human intermingling—is down only about 20 percent or so from normal.

因此,在华盛顿,就像其他许多地方一样,遵守规定的情况——有点不尽人意。这里的一些主要高速公路上的交通流量——一个很好的反映人类融合的指标——只比正常水平下降了20%左右。

But as scientists learn more about the SARS-CoV-2 virus and the COVID-19 pandemic, it's becoming apparent that we're facing a much more serious situation than most of us thought even a couple weeks ago.

尽管随着科学家对SARS-CoV-2病毒和COVID-19了解得越来越多,但是我们面临的形势显然比大多数人几周前想象的要严重得多。

Let me give you one example from here in Washington. On March 10, despite stern official warnings not to gather in groups, 56 people met for an event in Skagit County. All of them were apparently healthy at the time. But 10 days later, 43 of those 56 people have either been confirmed to have COVID-19 or are showing symptoms of the disease. Experts suspect that one or more people in the group was a so-called "supershedder," someone who has yet to show symptoms but is transmitting lots of infectious virus.

举一个华盛顿的例子。3月10日,尽管官方严令禁止聚集,仍有56人聚集在斯卡吉特县参加活动。他们当时都很健康。但10天后,这56人中有43人或被证实患有COVID-19,或出现了该疾病的症状。专家们怀疑这群人中有一个或多个是所谓的“超级传播者”,即那些尚未表现出症状但正在传播大量传染病毒的人。

In this two-part episode, we'll look at several new research studies and new tests announced this week that may help answer four crucial questions.

Question 1: Can you catch this disease from someone who isn't in the same room as you?

问题1:你会被不在同一房间的人传染吗?

Question 2: Can you catch it from somebody who isn't sick—and is there a way to test for that?

问题2:接触没有患病的人,我们会被感染吗?有没有方式来进行检测?

Question 3: What combination of shutdowns and closures will do the most to minimize the number of people who die from the pandemic? And how long will those tough restrictions need to continue?

问题3:哪些封闭措施能最大限度地减少死于流感大流行的人数?这些严格的限制措施还需要持续多久?

And question 4: How will each of us know when we're immune and no longer need to worry about catching COVID-19 or giving it to someone else? And what will we do with that information once we have it?

问题4:我们每个人如何知道自己已经免疫了,不再需要担心被感染或传染给别人?一旦我们有了这些信息,我们会怎么做呢?

COVID-19: How and Why the Virus Spreads Quickly

This is another in our series of coronavirus episodes of Scientific American's Science Talk, posted on March 23, 2020. I'm Steve Mirsky.

In this two-part episode, our contributing editor W. Wayt Gibbs in Washington State—a state hit early and hard by COVID-19—reports on scientists' fast-evolving understanding of this new coronavirus and the probable trajectory of this pandemic.

Today, in part one, he focuses on why the new coronavirus is spreading so quickly and is so difficult to control.

Check back in tomorrow for part two, when Gibbs looks at computer models that are predicting how long we'll need to shut down large parts of society to prevent hospitals from being overwhelmed. He also looks at how emerging tests for immunity to the virus could pose thorny ethical issues in the months to come.

Wayt recorded this episode on March 22. The first voice you hear: Governor Jay Inslee of Washington.

JI: "It is not rhetorical or hyperbolic when I say that everyone needs to change their behavior, change the way that we live—temporarily—if we are going to prevent significant loss of life for the people we love in the state of Washington. And when I say everyone, I mean, frankly, everyone. Because we all are potential transmitters of this virus, and we all, to some varying degree, are potential victims of this virus."

WWG: That was Governor Jay Inslee, pleading with people in my state on March 20 to stay home and stay away from each other. All around the U.S.—and around the world—governors and mayors and prime ministers are urging, begging—in many places even ordering—their citizens to shelter in place.

But it's not easy to resist our hardwired desires to spend time with our friends, to visit our parents and grandparents, to go to work.

So here in Washington, like in lots of other places, compliance has been—kind of spotty. Traffic on some of the major highways here—a good proxy for human intermingling—is down only about 20 percent or so from normal.

But as scientists learn more about the SARS-CoV-2 virus and the COVID-19 pandemic, it's becoming apparent that we're facing a much more serious situation than most of us thought even a couple weeks ago.

Let me give you one example from here in Washington. On March 10, despite stern official warnings not to gather in groups, 56 people met for an event in Skagit County. All of them were apparently healthy at the time. But 10 days later, 43 of those 56 people have either been confirmed to have COVID-19 or are showing symptoms of the disease. Experts suspect that one or more people in the group was a so-called "supershedder," someone who has yet to show symptoms but is transmitting lots of infectious virus.

In this two-part episode, we'll look at several new research studies and new tests announced this week that may help answer four crucial questions.

Question 1: Can you catch this disease from someone who isn't in the same room as you?

Question 2: Can you catch it from somebody who isn't sick—and is there a way to test for that?

Question 3: What combination of shutdowns and closures will do the most to minimize the number of people who die from the pandemic? And how long will those tough restrictions need to continue?

And question 4: How will each of us know when we're immune and no longer need to worry about catching COVID-19 or giving it to someone else? And what will we do with that information once we have it?


内容来自 VOA英语学习网https://www.chinavoa.com/show-8797-242209-1.html
Related Articles
内容推荐