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科学美国人60秒: 海洋温度上升虾会发出更多噪音

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Snapping Shrimp Make More Noise in Warmer Oceans

海洋温度上升虾会发出更多噪音

[CLIP: Snapping shrimp sound]

拍摄虾的声音

Rice Krispies? Rain hitting a tin roof? Bacon frying? How about noisy creatures known as snapping shrimp.

爆米花的声音?还是雨水打在铁皮屋顶的声音?还是啮虾那些吵闹的生物呢?

Warm temperate and tropical coastal waters around the world are teeming with these noisy little creatures. They snap their claws so fast that they produce a bubble. When the bubble bursts, it makes a loud popping sound."It's this sort of persistent background noise, these snapping shrimp kind of crackling."

世界各地暖温带和热带沿海水域充满了这些吵闹的小生物。它们的爪子抓得很快,以至于产生了一个泡泡。当泡沫破裂时,它会发出很大的爆裂声。“这是一种持续的背景噪音,这些虾产生的噼里啪啦作响的声音。”

\

Aran Mooney, a marine biologist at Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution.

阿然穆尼是伍兹霍尔海洋研究所的海洋生物学家。

The shrimp produce the loud sound to stun prey. So how would this persistent background noise be affected by oceans getting warmer in coming years? To find out, Mooney and his colleague Ashlee Lillis analyzed audio recordings of the critters in their natural environment.

虾发出巨大的声音来击晕猎物。那么,未来几年海洋变暖会如何影响这种持续的背景噪音呢?为了找到答案, 和他的同事阿什利·利斯分析了这些生物在自然环境中的录音。

They also performed lab experiments with snapping shrimp collected from the wild, in water of varying temperatures. And they found that when water heats up, the shrimp start snapping more—and the water's soundscape gets louder. They shared their findings in February at the Ocean Sciences Meeting 2020 in San Diego.

他们还进行了实验室实验,在不同温度的水中捕捉从野外采集的虾。他们发现,当水加热时,虾开始咬得更多——水的音景变得更响。今年2月,他们在圣地亚哥举行的2020年海洋科学会议上分享了他们的成果。

The researchers aren't sure what's causing this change in shrimp behavior—but they have an idea."We don't precisely know the mechanism of why they're snapping more often. What we think is that these guys are basically just ectothermic animals. So that means they're directly responding to environmental conditions around them. So basically, as you increase the water temperature, it increases their metabolic rate—they get more metabolically active, so they are able or trying to snap more."

研究人员还不确定是什么导致了虾类行为的变化,但他们有一个想法。“我们并不确切知道它们为什么更频繁地发出咔嚓声的机制。我们认为这些家伙基本上都是恒温动物。这意味着它们直接对周围的环境条件做出反应。所以基本上,你提高水温时,它们的新陈代谢率就会增加,就会变得更活跃,所以它们能够或试图捕捉到更多的东西。”

If these shrimp do make the ocean noisier as the climate warms, both marine creatures and humans could face new problems. Many ocean animals use sound to communicate. And both the Navy and fishermen rely on marine acoustics to do their work."You know, we never really thought about how that ocean background noise or its own fog is sort of naturally increasing, in what we think is temperature driven or climate change driven. So as you raise those levels, it gets harder to ‘see' through that acoustic fog."

如果随着气候变暖,这些虾确实让海洋变得更加嘈杂,那么海洋生物和人类都可能面临新的问题。许多海洋动物用声音来交流。海军和渔民都依靠海洋声学来完成他们的工作。“你知道,我们从来没有真正考虑过海洋背景噪音或雾是如何自然增加的,我们认为是温度或气候变化造成的。因此,提高声音水平时,你就很难透过声雾‘看到’。”

Snapping Shrimp Make More Noise in Warmer Oceans

[CLIP: Snapping shrimp sound]

Rice Krispies? Rain hitting a tin roof? Bacon frying? How about noisy creatures known as snapping shrimp.

Warm temperate and tropical coastal waters around the world are teeming with these noisy little creatures. They snap their claws so fast that they produce a bubble. When the bubble bursts, it makes a loud popping sound."It's this sort of persistent background noise, these snapping shrimp kind of crackling."

Aran Mooney, a marine biologist at Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution.

The shrimp produce the loud sound to stun prey. So how would this persistent background noise be affected by oceans getting warmer in coming years? To find out, Mooney and his colleague Ashlee Lillis analyzed audio recordings of the critters in their natural environment.

They also performed lab experiments with snapping shrimp collected from the wild, in water of varying temperatures. And they found that when water heats up, the shrimp start snapping more—and the water's soundscape gets louder. They shared their findings in February at the Ocean Sciences Meeting 2020 in San Diego.

The researchers aren't sure what's causing this change in shrimp behavior—but they have an idea."We don't precisely know the mechanism of why they're snapping more often. What we think is that these guys are basically just ectothermic animals. So that means they're directly responding to environmental conditions around them. So basically, as you increase the water temperature, it increases their metabolic rate—they get more metabolically active, so they are able or trying to snap more."

If these shrimp do make the ocean noisier as the climate warms, both marine creatures and humans could face new problems. Many ocean animals use sound to communicate. And both the Navy and fishermen rely on marine acoustics to do their work."You know, we never really thought about how that ocean background noise or its own fog is sort of naturally increasing, in what we think is temperature driven or climate change driven. So as you raise those levels, it gets harder to ‘see' through that acoustic fog."


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