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科学美国人60秒:纯种马越来越近交种

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Every Thoroughbred horse alive today is descended from three stallions and a larger selection of mares in 17th and 18th century England. Since then, no horses outside this lineage have been permitted to enter the bloodline. That’s a problem.

今天活着的每一匹纯种马都是17和18世纪英格兰的三匹种马和更多母马的后代。从那以后,这个血统之外的马都不被允许进入这个血脉。这是一个问题。

“We analyzed genetic diversity at thousands of genetic markers across the entire genome in more than 10,000 Thoroughbred horses from all of the major breeding regions of the world. This is the largest set of horses that's been examined in this way to date.”

“我们分析了来自世界上所有主要繁殖区的一万多匹纯种马的整个基因组中数千个遗传标记的遗传多样性。这是迄今为止用这种方法检测过的最大的一组马。”

Emmeline Hill, professor at University College Dublin and Chief Scientist with an ownership stake at an equine science company called PlusVital.“And what we found was that there has been a highly significant increase in inbreeding in the population over the last 45 years, and probably the greatest increase in inbreeding is seen in the last 10 or 15 years.”

Emmeline Hill是都柏林大学学院的教授,同时也是一家名为PlusVital的马科学公司的首席科学家。“我们发现,在过去的45年里,近亲繁殖的数量有了显著的增加,而近亲繁殖的最大增长可能是在过去的10年或15年里。”

Thoroughbred horse production is tightly controlled. Artificial insemination is not permitted, which means that breeding stallions get moved around a lot for meet-ups with females. These so-called “shuttle stallions” can mate with hundreds of mares per mating season. And there are two mating seasons, one in the northern hemisphere and the other in the southern.

纯种马的生产受到严格控制。人工授精是不允许的,这意味着繁殖的公马要经常与雌性交配。这些所谓的“穿梭种马”在每个交配季节可以与数百头母马交配。有两个交配季节,一个在北半球,另一个在南半球。

“In our study, 97 percent of the horses traced back to a single horse called Northern Dancer, arguably the most successful stallion of the 20th century. And his descendants have been the dominant sire lines in Australia and Europe for the last 25 years.” Northern Dancer won the Kentucky Derby in 1964.

“在我们的研究中,97%的马可以追溯到一匹叫‘北方舞者’的马,它可以说是20世纪最成功的种马。在过去的25年里,他的后代一直是澳大利亚和欧洲的主要父系。“北方舞者赢得了1964年的肯塔基赛马会。

Breeding pairs are chosen for their athletic prowess and competitive behavior, leading to strong selection for genes related to muscle performance and behavior.“Traits that all have to come together in the optimal fashion to produce an elite athlete.”But without genetic diversity, you can get health and behavior issues related to inbreeding.

繁殖配对是根据它们的运动能力和竞争行为来选择的,这导致了对与肌肉表现和行为相关的基因的强烈选择。“要培养出一名优秀的运动员,所有这些特质必须以最佳方式结合在一起。“但如果没有遗传多样性,你可能会遇到与近亲繁殖有关的健康和行为问题。

“The Thoroughbred is unusual in that most managed animal and even plant production systems have genetic monitoring in place. But the Thoroughbred has no genomic selection or population management that is addressed at an industry-wide level.”The study by Hill and her colleagues is in the journal Scientific Reports.

这种良种的不同寻常之处在于,大多数受管理的动物甚至植物生产系统都有基因监控。但纯种马没有基因组选择或群体管理,这是在整个行业层面上解决的问题。希尔和她的同事的这项研究发表在《科学报告》杂志上。

“With the DNA of a mare and the DNA of a stallion we can make in silico predictions about the likely level of inbreeding in the hypothetical foal that might arise from that mating.”

“利用母马的DNA和种马的DNA,我们可以用硅材料预测交配可能产生的小马驹近亲繁殖的可能性。”

Every Thoroughbred horse alive today is descended from three stallions and a larger selection of mares in 17th and 18th century England. Since then, no horses outside this lineage have been permitted to enter the bloodline. That’s a problem.

“We analyzed genetic diversity at thousands of genetic markers across the entire genome in more than 10,000 Thoroughbred horses from all of the major breeding regions of the world. This is the largest set of horses that's been examined in this way to date.”

Emmeline Hill, professor at University College Dublin and Chief Scientist with an ownership stake at an equine science company called PlusVital.“And what we found was that there has been a highly significant increase in inbreeding in the population over the last 45 years, and probably the greatest increase in inbreeding is seen in the last 10 or 15 years.”

Thoroughbred horse production is tightly controlled. Artificial insemination is not permitted, which means that breeding stallions get moved around a lot for meet-ups with females. These so-called “shuttle stallions” can mate with hundreds of mares per mating season. And there are two mating seasons, one in the northern hemisphere and the other in the southern.

“In our study, 97 percent of the horses traced back to a single horse called Northern Dancer, arguably the most successful stallion of the 20th century. And his descendants have been the dominant sire lines in Australia and Europe for the last 25 years.” Northern Dancer won the Kentucky Derby in 1964.Breeding pairs are chosen for their athletic prowess and competitive behavior, leading to strong selection for genes related to muscle performance and behavior.“Traits that all have to come together in the optimal fashion to produce an elite athlete.”But without genetic diversity, you can get health and behavior issues related to inbreeding.

“The Thoroughbred is unusual in that most managed animal and even plant production systems have genetic monitoring in place. But the Thoroughbred has no genomic selection or population management that is addressed at an industry-wide level.”The study by Hill and her colleagues is in the journal Scientific Reports.

“With the DNA of a mare and the DNA of a stallion we can make in silico predictions about the likely level of inbreeding in the hypothetical foal that might arise from that mating.”


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