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VOA慢速英语:最新研究揭秘为什么女性比男性寿命更长

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New Study Looks Into Why Females Live Longer Than Males

最新研究揭秘为什么女性比男性寿命更长

Researchers already know that women live longer than men in all parts of the world. Scientists have largely linked the difference in life expectancy between the sexes to biological survival factors.

众所周知全球各地女性的寿命都比男性长。科学家们认为性别之间的平均寿命差异很大程度上与生物学上的生存因素有关。

Now, a new study of wild mammals has found great differences in length of life and aging in many species of mammals.

当前一项关于野生哺乳动物的新研究发现,许多哺乳类动物的寿命长短和衰老都存在巨大差异。

The researchers found that, in humans, women live almost 8 percent longer than men. But among wild mammals, females in 60 percent of the studied species live, on average, 18.6 percent longer. The percentages are very different for different groups of mammals.

研究人员发现,对于人类来说女性的寿命比男性的要长近8%。但对于野生哺乳动物来说,被研究的物种中60%的雌性平均寿命(比雄性)长18.6%。不同种群的哺乳类动物彼此间的百分比差异也很大。

Jean-François Lemaître led the study. He is from the University Lyon 1 in France. He and his research team collected information on age-related deaths for 134 groups of 101 wild species of mammals.

来自法国里昂第一大学的让·弗朗索瓦·勒梅特领导了这项研究。他和他的研究小组收集了134组101种野生哺乳动物与年龄相关的死亡信息。

Lemaître said, “It was surprising to observe that this gender gap in lifespan often exceeds the one observed in humans and is, at the same time, extremely variable across species.”

勒梅特说:“令人惊讶的是,这种寿命长短的性别差距通常会超出人类所观察的差距,同时在不同种族之间差距非常大。”

Tamás Székely, from the University of Bath, was one of the writers of the study. He told VOA that female lions in the wild live at least 50 percent longer than male lions.

巴斯大学的塔玛斯·塞凯利是该研究的作者之一。他告诉美国之音(VOA),野生的雌狮比雄狮的寿命至少长50%。

“We previously thought this was mostly due to sexual selection, he said. “However our data do not support this.”

“以前我们一直认为这主要是性选择引起的,”他说,“但这个观点并没有得到数据支持。”

Scientists say the risk of death does not increase more quickly in males than in females across species. They say there must be other, more complex reasons. These include things such as environmental conditions in which the animals live, sex-specific growth, survival and reproduction through the history of the species.

科学家同时表示,各个物种中雄性的死亡风险并没有比雌性增加更快。他们认为,这其中肯定还有其他更复杂的原因,包括诸如动物所处的环境条件,特定的性别增长,物种历史发展中的生存和繁殖选择等。

Székely suggests that one reason for the differences between the sexes is that “female survival increases when males provide some or all of the parental care.”

塞凯利表示造成性别差异的一个原因是“当男性提供部分或全部的亲代抚育责任时,女性的存活率就会提高。”

He added that “giving birth and caring for young becomes a significant health cost for females and so this cost is reduced if both parents work together to bring up their offspring."

他补充道:“生育和照顾年轻一代会给女性带来很大的健康损耗,因此如果父母双方共同努力抚养后代,对女性的这一损耗将减少。”

Scientists plan to compare the data on wild mammals with the data on mammals kept in zoos. They want to measure how much biological differences between the sexes affect life expectancy. In zoos, animals do not have to fight with predators or fight for food and mates.

科学家计划将野生哺乳动物的数据与动物园饲养的哺乳动物的数据进行比较。以此来衡量生物学差异对两性之间平均寿命的影响。在动物园,动物们不必对抗掠食者,也不必为了食物或伴侣争斗。

Scientists hope the findings will give them a better understanding of what affects length of life in humans. In the past 200 years, the average life expectancy of humans has more than doubled. The main reasons for the increase are improved living conditions and developments in the field of medicine. However, women continue to live longer than men. This suggests biological differences also play a part.

科学家希望这些发现能帮助他们更好地了解影响人类寿命长短的因素。过去200年人类的平均寿命增长了一倍多,造成这种增长的主要原因是生活条件的改善和医学领域的发展。然而妇女的寿命仍然比男子长,这表明生物学差异在从中起到了作用。

The U.S. Centers for Disease Control says the average American man will live to age 76. The average woman in America will live to age 81. Women can also expect to be healthier than men in their older years. Experts said this is because of a combination of biological and social differences.

美国疾病控制中心表示,美国男性的平均寿命为76岁,而美国女性的平均寿命为81岁。而且,在老年阶段女性会比男性更健康。专家表示,这是生物学和社会差异结合产生的结果。

A hormone in men called testosterone is connected to a decrease in their immune system and risk of heart-related diseases as they age. It is also connected to risky behavior, such as smoking, drinking and unhealthy eating habits.

男性体内一种被称为睾丸素的激素会随着年龄的增长而减少导致其免疫力系统及患心脏病的风险下降,寿命长短还与一些危险的行为习惯有关,比如吸烟、饮酒和不健康的饮食习惯。

Men are also less likely than women to follow suggestions and warnings from a doctor. And research shows that men are more likely to take life-threatening risks and to die in car accidents or gun fights.

相对来说,女性比男性更愿意听从医生的建议和警告。研究表明,男人更愿意去冒风险,更容易死于车祸或枪战中。

I’m Jonathan Evans.

乔纳森·埃文斯报道。

 

New Study Looks Into Why Females Live Longer Than Males

Researchers already know that women live longer than men in all parts of the world. Scientists have largely linked the difference in life expectancy between the sexes to biological survival factors.

Now, a new study of wild mammals has found great differences in length of life and aging in many species of mammals.

The researchers found that, in humans, women live almost 8 percent longer than men. But among wild mammals, females in 60 percent of the studied species live, on average, 18.6 percent longer. The percentages are very different for different groups of mammals.

Jean-François Lemaître led the study. He is from the University Lyon 1 in France. He and his research team collected information on age-related deaths for 134 groups of 101 wild species of mammals.

Lemaître said, “It was surprising to observe that this gender gap in lifespan often exceeds the one observed in humans and is, at the same time, extremely variable across species.”

Tamás Székely, from the University of Bath, was one of the writers of the study. He told VOA that female lions in the wild live at least 50 percent longer than male lions.

“We previously thought this was mostly due to sexual selection, he said. “However our data do not support this.”

Scientists say the risk of death does not increase more quickly in males than in females across species. They say there must be other, more complex reasons. These include things such as environmental conditions in which the animals live, sex-specific growth, survival and reproduction through the history of the species.

Székely suggests that one reason for the differences between the sexes is that “female survival increases when males provide some or all of the parental care.”

He added that “giving birth and caring for young becomes a significant health cost for females and so this cost is reduced if both parents work together to bring up their offspring."

Scientists plan to compare the data on wild mammals with the data on mammals kept in zoos. They want to measure how much biological differences between the sexes affect life expectancy. In zoos, animals do not have to fight with predators or fight for food and mates.

Scientists hope the findings will give them a better understanding of what affects length of life in humans. In the past 200 years, the average life expectancy of humans has more than doubled. The main reasons for the increase are improved living conditions and developments in the field of medicine. However, women continue to live longer than men. This suggests biological differences also play a part.

The U.S. Centers for Disease Control says the average American man will live to age 76. The average woman in America will live to age 81. Women can also expect to be healthier than men in their older years. Experts said this is because of a combination of biological and social differences.

A hormone in men called testosterone is connected to a decrease in their immune system and risk of heart-related diseases as they age. It is also connected to risky behavior, such as smoking, drinking and unhealthy eating habits.

Men are also less likely than women to follow suggestions and warnings from a doctor. And research shows that men are more likely to take life-threatening risks and to die in car accidents or gun fights.

I’m Jonathan Evans.


内容来自 VOA英语学习网https://www.chinavoa.com/show-8788-242305-1.html
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