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VOA慢速英语:越年轻的癌症幸存者往后患重疾的风险越高

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Young Cancer Survivors Have Higher Risk of Severe Health Problems Later

越年轻的癌症幸存者往后患重疾的风险越高

People who survive cancer during childhood and early adulthood are more likely to experience severe, life-threatening health problems later on in life. In fact, many of the survivors die before other people the same age.

在童年和中青年时期战胜癌症的人,往后患上严重的、危及生命的疾病的可能性更高。事实上,与同龄人相比许多(癌症)幸存者逝世更早。

Those are findings from a recent study. A report on the study was published this month in The Lancet Oncology.

最近的一项研究发现了此结论。该研究报告本月发表于《柳叶刀肿瘤学》杂志。

Researchers followed almost 12,000 young cancer survivors and about 5,000 of their siblings for about 20 years. All of these relatives were said to be in good health.

研究人员对约12000名年轻癌症幸存者和他们的5000名兄弟姐妹进行了长达20年的跟踪调查。调查显示所有被跟踪调查的(患者)亲属都很健康。

The cancer survivors were free of the disease for at least five years at the start of the study. Yet they were still about six times more likely to die during the follow-up period than their siblings.

在研究初期,这些癌症幸存者至少有五年没有患上这类疾病。然而,在接下来的随访期间他们的死亡率仍然是他们兄弟姐妹的六倍。

Tara Henderson was the lead writer of the report. She noted, “Before 1960, cancer before the age of 21 years was uniformly fatal, and currently about 83% of anyone diagnosed with cancer before the age of 21 years can be cured.”

塔拉·亨德森是该报告的主要作者。她指出,“1960年以前,21岁之前患上癌症都会是致命的,而目前约83%的21岁之前被诊断为癌症的患者均可以被治愈。”

Henderson is director of cancer survivorship at the University of Chicago’s Comprehensive Cancer Center. She said that doctors need to put more effort into learning the long-term side effects of cancer treatment. The Reuters news agency reported her comments.

亨德森是芝加哥大学综合癌症中心癌症幸存者项目的主管。她说,医生们需要花更多精力了解癌症治疗的长期副作用。路透社报道了她的评论。

Better survival chances also mean children may have a higher risk of developing health problems as a result of tumors or cancer treatments. The problems include heart disease, old cancers returning or possible new cancers.

更好的生存机会也意味着由于接受了肿瘤或癌症治疗,这些孩子们罹患疾病的风险更高。这些疾病包括心脏病、癌症旧病复发,或者其他种类的癌症。

Many doctors turn to chemotherapy to treat cancer patients. They use drugs to stop the growth of cancer cells, either by killing the cells or by stopping them from dividing.

许多医生借助化疗来治疗癌症患者。他们使用药物来阻止癌细胞的生长,或杀死癌细胞,或阻止癌细胞分裂。

Yet chemotherapy can weaken the heart muscle and some newer targeted medicines increase the risk of heart failure. So says the American Heart Association. The group also notes that radiation can cause heart rhythm disorders and structural damage in blood vessels and heart valves.

然而化疗会削弱心肌,一些新的靶向药物会增加心力衰竭的风险。美国心脏协会如是说。该组织还指出,放射物可能导致心律失常及血管和心脏瓣膜的结构损伤。

By age 45, 56 percent of the childhood cancer survivors diagnosed with the disease before age 15 had developed severe health problems. That compares with 39 percent of survivors diagnosed while growing up or in early adulthood and 12 percent of siblings without any history of cancer.

到45岁,在15岁之前被诊断患有癌症的儿童幸存者中,有56%出现了严重的健康问题。相比之下,在成长或成年早期被诊断出癌症的幸存者中仅39%有类似问题,而他们那些没有癌症病史的兄弟姐妹则仅12%有类似问题。

Death rates were also higher for cancer survivors diagnosed during childhood than for those diagnosed during adolescence or early adulthood.

在儿童时期确诊过癌症的幸存者,其死亡率也高于在青春期或成年早期确诊的癌症幸存者。

However, survivors of childhood cancer were less likely to die from returning tumors than survivors who were diagnosed a little later.

然而,儿童癌症幸存者因肿瘤复发导致死亡的可能性比稍晚被诊断出癌症的幸存者要小。

Researchers followed people diagnosed with cancer between 1970 and 1999. They found that it is possible that long-term results might be better for people diagnosed today because of better treatments. The researchers said that is partly because of changes designed to improve survival chances and decrease the risk of severe treatment-related health problems.

研究人员跟踪调查了1970年至1999年间被诊断出癌症的患者。他们发现,由于治疗方法的进步,对于当今被诊断出癌症的患者来说,治疗的长期效果可能更好。研究人员说,这其中部分原因是医学上为提供患者生存几率,同时降低治疗期间产生其他严重疾病的问题所做的改变。

One limitation of the study is that researchers lacked information on three kinds of cancer: tumors in the gonads, thyroid, and skin. Those three make up about 40 percent of cancers discovered in 15-to 20-year-olds.

这项研究的一个局限是,研究人员缺乏关于三种癌症的信息:生殖腺癌、甲状腺癌和皮肤癌。这三种癌症占15- 20岁人群中发现的癌症类型的40%。

Päivi Lähteenmäki is a doctor with Turku University in Finland and the Karolinska Institute in Stockholm, Sweden. She noted that, “Some cancer-related complications do not become apparent until several years following cancer treatment.”

赛威·拉斯马奇是芬兰图尔库大学和瑞典斯德哥尔摩卡罗林斯卡学院的一位博士。她指出,“一些癌症相关的并发症会在癌症治疗的几年后才显现出来。”

In an email to Reuters, she urged cancer patients to “adopt a healthy lifestyle to help make severe or life-threatening medical issues less likely to develop.” She added that patients can do a number of things, including exercising, eating well, not smoking and keeping a healthy body weight.

在给路透社的一封电子邮件中,她敦促癌症患者“要建立健康的生活方式,以便减少严重或危及生命的医疗问题的发生。”她还补充道,病人可以做很多有益健康的事情,其中包括锻炼身体、健康饮食、不吸烟以及保持健康的体重。

I’m Jonathan Evans.

乔纳森·埃文斯报道。

 

Young Cancer Survivors Have Higher Risk of Severe Health Problems Later

People who survive cancer during childhood and early adulthood are more likely to experience severe, life-threatening health problems later on in life. In fact, many of the survivors die before other people the same age.

Those are findings from a recent study. A report on the study was published this month in The Lancet Oncology.

Researchers followed almost 12,000 young cancer survivors and about 5,000 of their siblings for about 20 years. All of these relatives were said to be in good health.

The cancer survivors were free of the disease for at least five years at the start of the study. Yet they were still about six times more likely to die during the follow-up period than their siblings.

Tara Henderson was the lead writer of the report. She noted, “Before 1960, cancer before the age of 21 years was uniformly fatal, and currently about 83% of anyone diagnosed with cancer before the age of 21 years can be cured.”

Henderson is director of cancer survivorship at the University of Chicago’s Comprehensive Cancer Center. She said that doctors need to put more effort into learning the long-term side effects of cancer treatment. The Reuters news agency reported her comments.

Better survival chances also mean children may have a higher risk of developing health problems as a result of tumors or cancer treatments. The problems include heart disease, old cancers returning or possible new cancers.

Many doctors turn to chemotherapy to treat cancer patients. They use drugs to stop the growth of cancer cells, either by killing the cells or by stopping them from dividing.

Yet chemotherapy can weaken the heart muscle and some newer targeted medicines increase the risk of heart failure. So says the American Heart Association. The group also notes that radiation can cause heart rhythm disorders and structural damage in blood vessels and heart valves.

By age 45, 56 percent of the childhood cancer survivors diagnosed with the disease before age 15 had developed severe health problems. That compares with 39 percent of survivors diagnosed while growing up or in early adulthood and 12 percent of siblings without any history of cancer.

Death rates were also higher for cancer survivors diagnosed during childhood than for those diagnosed during adolescence or early adulthood.

However, survivors of childhood cancer were less likely to die from returning tumors than survivors who were diagnosed a little later.

Researchers followed people diagnosed with cancer between 1970 and 1999. They found that it is possible that long-term results might be better for people diagnosed today because of better treatments. The researchers said that is partly because of changes designed to improve survival chances and decrease the risk of severe treatment-related health problems.

One limitation of the study is that researchers lacked information on three kinds of cancer: tumors in the gonads, thyroid, and skin. Those three make up about 40 percent of cancers discovered in 15-to 20-year-olds.

Päivi Lähteenmäki is a doctor with Turku University in Finland and the Karolinska Institute in Stockholm, Sweden. She noted that, “Some cancer-related complications do not become apparent until several years following cancer treatment.”

In an email to Reuters, she urged cancer patients to “adopt a healthy lifestyle to help make severe or life-threatening medical issues less likely to develop.” She added that patients can do a number of things, including exercising, eating well, not smoking and keeping a healthy body weight.

I’m Jonathan Evans.


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