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VOA慢速英语:科学家:2019年海水温度创历史新高

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Scientists: 2019 Ocean Water Temperatures Were Hottest Ever

科学家:2019年海水温度创历史新高

Scientists reported this week that the world’s oceans were warmer in 2019 than they had ever been before.

本周科学家们的一份报告指出,2019年全球海洋温度比以往任何时候都要高。

The report comes at a time when studies have linked rising ocean water temperatures to manmade pollution. Researchers say the rate of warming is speeding up and may cause a planet-wide disaster.

该报告发布之际正值一些研究将不断上升的海水温度与人为污染联系起来。研究人员称,全球变暖的速度正在加快,并可能引发全球性的灾难。

The oceans take in more than 90 percent of the extra heat created by carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gas emissions. Greenhouse gases are a product of pollution from factories, driving motor vehicles and other human activities.

海洋吸收了超过90%的二氧化碳和其他温室气体排放产生的额外热量。温室气体是工厂、驾驶机动车辆和其他人类活动污染的产物。

Scientists are able to measure the rate of global warming when they compare current ocean water temperatures with those measured over the past few years.

科学家们通过对比当前的海水温度与过去几年测量的海水温度的差别来衡量全球变暖的速度。

For a better understanding of ocean warmth, scientists from around the world studied records shared by China’s Institute of Atmospheric Physics (IAP). They found that the latest water temperature was 0.075 degrees Celsius higher than the average temperature from 1981 to 2010. Their findings were published in the scientific journal Advances in Atmospheric Sciences.

为了更好地了解海洋温度,世界各地的科学家共同研究了中国大气物理研究所(IAP)共享的相关记录。他们发现,最新的海水水温比1981年至2010年的平均温度高出0.075摄氏度。此次研究成果发表于《大气科学进展》科学杂志。

Effects of warmer oceans

海洋变暖的影响

The scientists pointed to the many extreme weather events of 2019 as one effect of warmer oceans. They added that warmer water also endangers some sea creatures and causes higher sea levels.

科学家们指出,2019年许多极端气象活动就是海洋变暖的影响之一。他们还指出,海水水温升高还会危及一些海洋生物并导致海平面上升。

Lijing Cheng is with the International Center for Climate and Environmental Sciences at the IAP. He also was the lead author of a paper on the study. He says the heat the oceans have taken in to make the temperature change amounts to 228 Zetta Joules (228 billion trillion Joules) of energy.

程李靖(音译)就职于中国大气物理研究所的国际气候与环境科学中心。他也是这篇研究论文的首席作者。他说,海洋吸收的导致温度发生这种变化的热量相当于2280万亿焦耳的能量。

"That's a lot of zeros indeed,” he said. “To make it easier to understand, I did a calculation… The amount of heat we have put into the world's oceans in the past 25 years equals to 3.6 billion Hiroshima atom-bomb explosions.”

这里面包含了太多太多个零,他说。为了让大家更容易理解,我算了一下……过去25年里,我们向全球海洋排放的热量相当于广岛原子弹爆炸的36亿倍。

One hundred hair dryers per person

每人用100个吹风机

Michael Mann is director of the Earth System Sciences Center at Penn State University in the United States. He says the energy that caused the warming is equal to "everyone on the planet running a hundred hairdryers or a hundred microwaves continuously for the entire year.” He spoke to the French news agency AFP.

迈克尔·曼恩是美国宾夕法尼亚州立大学地球系统科学中心主任。他说,导致全球变暖的能量相当于地球上每个人全年不停地使用100个吹风机或100个微波炉的能量。 他在接受法新社采访时如是说。

The past five years are the five hottest years for the ocean since scientists began keeping records, the study found.

研究发现,过去五年是科学家开始记录此数值以来最热的五年。

John Abraham is a co-author of the paper. He said it is important to “understand how fast things are changing. The key to answering this question is in the oceans -- that's where the vast majority of heat ends up. If you want to understand global warming, you have to measure ocean warming."

约翰·亚伯拉罕是这篇论文的作者之一。他说,了解气温变化速度有多快很重要。问题的关键在海洋中——海洋是绝大多数热量的最终归宿。如果你想了解全球变暖,你必须测量海洋温度变化。

Abraham is a professor of mechanical engineering at the University of St. Thomas in Minnesota.

亚伯拉罕是明尼苏达州圣托马斯大学的机械工程教授。

Target limit to global warming

限制全球变暖的目标

In 2015, world leaders signed the Paris Agreement as part of efforts to limit climate change. The agreement took effect the following year. It aims to limit global temperature increases to "well below" 2 degrees Celsius, and to 1.5 degrees Celsius if at all possible.

2015年,作为限制气候变化努力的一部分世界各国领导人签署了《巴黎协定》。该协议于第二年生效。它的目标是将全球气温上升温度控制在2摄氏度,如果可能的话最好控制在1.5摄氏度以内。

There has been about 1 degree Celsius of warming since the start of the Industrial Revolution 200 years ago. Yet the result of rising water temperatures is not evenly spread in the world’s oceans. The report says that warmer temperatures are partly to blame for heavy rainfall in Indonesia and the drying of Australia, leading to wildfires in Australia and the Amazon.

200年前工业革命开始以来,全球变暖的幅度约为1摄氏度。然而,海水温度的上升在世界各大海洋中分布并不均匀。报告称,气温升高在一定程度上或是导致印尼强降雨和澳大利亚干旱以及引发澳洲和亚马逊丛林大火的元凶。

Hope remains

希望仍存

Mann explained that there is still hope for the climate to recover from this temperature increase. "If we stop warming the planet, heat will continue to diffuse down into the deep ocean for centuries until eventually stabilizing."

曼恩解释说,全球气候仍有希望从温度升高中恢复元气。 如果我们停止让地球变暖,热量会经过几个世纪不断扩散到深海直到最终稳定下来。

I’m Jill Robbins.

吉尔·罗宾斯报道。

 

Scientists: 2019 Ocean Water Temperatures Were Hottest Ever

Scientists reported this week that the world’s oceans were warmer in 2019 than they had ever been before.

The report comes at a time when studies have linked rising ocean water temperatures to manmade pollution. Researchers say the rate of warming is speeding up and may cause a planet-wide disaster.

The oceans take in more than 90 percent of the extra heat created by carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gas emissions. Greenhouse gases are a product of pollution from factories, driving motor vehicles and other human activities.

Scientists are able to measure the rate of global warming when they compare current ocean water temperatures with those measured over the past few years.

For a better understanding of ocean warmth, scientists from around the world studied records shared by China’s Institute of Atmospheric Physics (IAP). They found that the latest water temperature was 0.075 degrees Celsius higher than the average temperature from 1981 to 2010. Their findings were published in the scientific journal Advances in Atmospheric Sciences.

Effects of warmer oceans

The scientists pointed to the many extreme weather events of 2019 as one effect of warmer oceans. They added that warmer water also endangers some sea creatures and causes higher sea levels.

Lijing Cheng is with the International Center for Climate and Environmental Sciences at the IAP. He also was the lead author of a paper on the study. He says the heat the oceans have taken in to make the temperature change amounts to 228 Zetta Joules (228 billion trillion Joules) of energy.

"That's a lot of zeros indeed,” he said. “To make it easier to understand, I did a calculation… The amount of heat we have put into the world's oceans in the past 25 years equals to 3.6 billion Hiroshima atom-bomb explosions.”

One hundred hair dryers per person

Michael Mann is director of the Earth System Sciences Center at Penn State University in the United States. He says the energy that caused the warming is equal to "everyone on the planet running a hundred hairdryers or a hundred microwaves continuously for the entire year.” He spoke to the French news agency AFP.

The past five years are the five hottest years for the ocean since scientists began keeping records, the study found.

John Abraham is a co-author of the paper. He said it is important to “understand how fast things are changing. The key to answering this question is in the oceans -- that's where the vast majority of heat ends up. If you want to understand global warming, you have to measure ocean warming."

Abraham is a professor of mechanical engineering at the University of St. Thomas in Minnesota.

Target limit to global warming

In 2015, world leaders signed the Paris Agreement as part of efforts to limit climate change. The agreement took effect the following year. It aims to limit global temperature increases to "well below" 2 degrees Celsius, and to 1.5 degrees Celsius if at all possible.

There has been about 1 degree Celsius of warming since the start of the Industrial Revolution 200 years ago. Yet the result of rising water temperatures is not evenly spread in the world’s oceans. The report says that warmer temperatures are partly to blame for heavy rainfall in Indonesia and the drying of Australia, leading to wildfires in Australia and the Amazon.

Hope remains

Mann explained that there is still hope for the climate to recover from this temperature increase. "If we stop warming the planet, heat will continue to diffusedown into the deep ocean for centuries until eventually stabilizing."

I’m Jill Robbins.


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