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科学美国人60秒: 有魅力的年轻女性可能有公正的优势

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Attractive Young Females May Have Justice Edge

Eight years ago, the jury in the trial of Casey Anthony announced their verdict. "As to the charge of first-degree murder, verdict as to count one, we the jury find the defendant not guilty."

Anthony had been charged with murdering her two-year-old daughter. But like the murder charge, the jury's decision for additional charges of aggravated child abuse and aggravated manslaughter were again "not guilty."

"That caused this huge outcry." Christopher Ferguson, a clinical psychologist at Stetson University in central Florida, not far from where the trial occurred. "There was this narrative that she got preferential treatment, maybe not on purpose, but that the jury was sympathetic to her because she was this pretty young female and that kind of conflicted with people's impression of who a murderer is."

Mock trial studies have suggested that attractive people have an edge in the criminal justice system. So Ferguson and his colleagues looked into that stereotype using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health, the largest long-term study of people who began participating in the study as teens.

The interviewers asked the youths a multitude of questions—and also rated the respondents' degree of attractiveness, a measure that's been used to examine links to health and wealth.

In this case, Ferguson and his team looked at a subset of nearly 8,800 respondents and examined the correlation between attractiveness and arrest, conviction and sentencing. After controlling for things like gender, race and socioeconomic status, they found that attractiveness didhave a protective effect—but only for females.

"Girls or women who are more attractive were less likely to be arrested if they'd committed a crime and less likely to be convicted if they were arrested for that crime. However, it did not have any impact on their sentencing. So once they were convicted, attractiveness conveyed no further benefits." The results are in the journal Psychiatry, Psychology and Law.

It's just a correlation, of course, and there are limitations. The attractiveness ratings were an average of four different interviewers' assessments, made over a dozen years. But beauty, as they say, is in the eyes of the beholder. And the effects weren't huge. Still, Ferguson says, "being alert to our stereotypes and prejudices sometimes can help us combat them a little bit"—and perhaps get us closer to the ideal that justice should be blind.

Attractive Young Females May Have Justice Edge

有魅力的年轻女性可能有公正的优势

Eight years ago, the jury in the trial of Casey Anthony announced their verdict. "As to the charge of first-degree murder, verdict as to count one, we the jury find the defendant not guilty."

八年前,审判凯西•安东尼的陪审团宣布了他们的判决。“对于一级谋杀的指控,我们陪审团认为被告无罪。”

Anthony had been charged with murdering her two-year-old daughter. But like the murder charge, the jury's decision for additional charges of aggravated child abuse and aggravated manslaughter were again "not guilty."

安东尼被控谋杀她两岁的女儿。但是,与谋杀指控一样,陪审团对加重虐待儿童和加重过失杀人罪的附加指控的裁决再次“无罪”。

"That caused this huge outcry." Christopher Ferguson, a clinical psychologist at Stetson University in central Florida, not far from where the trial occurred. "There was this narrative that she got preferential treatment, maybe not on purpose, but that the jury was sympathetic to her because she was this pretty young female and that kind of conflicted with people's impression of who a murderer is."

“这引起了巨大的抗议。”弗罗里达中部斯泰森大学的临床心理学家克里斯托弗·弗格森说道。“有一种说法是,她得到了优待,也许不是故意的,但陪审团同情她,因为她是这么年轻漂亮的女性,这与人们对谁是凶手的印象有些矛盾。”

Mock trial studies have suggested that attractive people have an edge in the criminal justice system. So Ferguson and his colleagues looked into that stereotype using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health, the largest long-term study of people who began participating in the study as teens.

模拟审判研究表明,有魅力的人在刑事司法体系中具有优势。所以Ferguson和他的同事们利用国家青少年到成人健康纵向研究的数据来研究这种刻板印象,这是对从青少年时期就开始参与这项研究的人进行的最大的长期研究。

The interviewers asked the youths a multitude of questions—and also rated the respondents' degree of attractiveness, a measure that's been used to examine links to health and wealth.

调查人员向这些年轻人提出了一系列问题,并对他们的吸引力程度进行了评分

In this case, Ferguson and his team looked at a subset of nearly 8,800 respondents and examined the correlation between attractiveness and arrest, conviction and sentencing. After controlling for things like gender, race and socioeconomic status, they found that attractiveness didhave a protective effect—but only for females.

在这个案例中,弗格森和他的团队调查了近8800名受访者,研究了吸引力与被捕、定罪和判刑之间的关系。在对性别、种族和社会经济地位等因素进行控制后,他们发现吸引力确实具有保护作用——但只对女性有效。

"Girls or women who are more attractive were less likely to be arrested if they'd committed a crime and less likely to be convicted if they were arrested for that crime. However, it did not have any impact on their sentencing. So once they were convicted, attractiveness conveyed no further benefits." The results are in the journal Psychiatry, Psychology and Law.

“更有魅力的女孩或女性犯罪时被捕的可能性更小,而因犯罪被捕时被定罪的可能性也更小。”然而,这对他们的判决没有任何影响。因此,一旦他们被定罪,外表吸引力就不会带来进一步的好处。”研究结果发表在《精神病学、心理学和法律》杂志上。

It's just a correlation, of course, and there are limitations. The attractiveness ratings were an average of four different interviewers' assessments, made over a dozen years. But beauty, as they say, is in the eyes of the beholder. And the effects weren't huge. Still, Ferguson says, "being alert to our stereotypes and prejudices sometimes can help us combat them a little bit"—and perhaps get us closer to the ideal that justice should be blind.

当然,这只是一种相关性,也有局限性。这些吸引力评分是在十多年的时间里,由四种不同的面试官评估得出的。但是,正如人们所说,美存在于观者的眼中。而且影响并不大。尽管如此,弗格森说,“对我们的刻板印象和偏见保持警惕,有时可以帮助我们稍微克服一点”——或许还能让我们更接近正义应该是盲目的这一理想。听力原文


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