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科学美国人60秒: 精英跑步者体内的微生物更强壮

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Elite Runners' Microbes Make Mice Mightier

精英跑步者体内的微生物更强壮

The microbes in our intestines help keep us healthy, strengthening our immune systems and promoting metabolism. But they may also give us a leg up when it comes to moving our legs up—and down again, rapidly and repeatedly—because a new study finds that mice that are fed bacteria isolated from elite athletes log more time on the treadmill than other mice that are treated only to bacteria found in yogurt. The results appear in the journal Nature Medicine.

我们肠道中的微生物帮助我们保持健康,增强我们的免疫系统,促进新陈代谢。但他们也可能给我们一条腿时移动腿掀下来,迅速,repeatedly-because一项新的研究发现,小鼠喂食细菌隔绝精英运动员在跑步机上记录更多的时间比其他老鼠被细菌中发现的酸奶。研究结果发表在《自然医学》杂志上。

Aleksandar Kostic, a microbiologist at Harvard Medical School, was initially interested in how the gut microbes of people with diabetes might differ from folks without the condition—the idea being that tweaking the microbiome might help to treat the disease. But the question of enhancing overall health and fitness can also come from the other direction:

哈佛医学院的微生物学家Aleksandar Kostic最初对糖尿病患者的肠道微生物与没有糖尿病的人有何不同感兴趣,他的想法是调整微生物群可能有助于治疗糖尿病。但提高整体健康和健身的问题也可能来自另一个方向:

“Here the question was more, what’s unique in the gut microbiome of someone who is supremely healthy? And can we use that feature of the microbiome to transfer into other people to potentially make them healthier?”

“这里的问题更多的是,一个极其健康的人的肠道微生物群中有什么独特之处?”我们能否利用微生物群的这一特性将其转移到其他人身上,使他们更健康?”

And a handy window into the gut is poop. So Kostic and his crew asked 15 runners who competed in the Boston Marathon in 2015 to provide daily stool samples from a week before the race to a week after. They also collected samples from 10 people who are decidedly more sedentary, and they tallied the bacteria present in each.

进入肠道的一个方便的窗口是便便。因此,科斯蒂克和他的团队要求2015年参加波士顿马拉松比赛的15名选手提供从比赛前一周到比赛后一周的每日粪便样本。他们还从10个久坐不动的人身上采集了样本,并统计了每个人体内的细菌数量。

“And when we looked at this data, there was really one thing that jumped out at us, and it was this genus of bacteria that isn’t so well studied: Veillonella. We found it was very significantly higher in abundance in the gut after the marathon. But not only that, it was found much more frequently in elite marathon runners than in the general population."

“当我们看到这些数据时,确实有一件事让我们大吃一惊,那就是这种细菌没有得到很好的研究:细孔菌。我们发现,在马拉松比赛后,肠道中这种物质的含量要高得多。不仅如此,精英马拉松运动员比普通人群更容易出现这种情况。”

To see whether this microbe might provide the athletes with any benefit, they gave some to mice and then let the little rodents run. And they found that the mice loaded with Veillonella spent more time on the treadmill than those that got Lactobacillus.

为了研究这种微生物是否会给运动员带来好处,他们给老鼠吃了一些,然后让小老鼠跑掉。他们发现,与那些注射了乳酸菌的老鼠相比,注射了细孔菌的老鼠在跑步机上的时间更长。

“And this was an increase of 13 percent ... I think any endurance athlete or any athlete in general will tell you that a 13 percent increase is pretty significant.”

“这个数字增加了13%……我认为任何一个耐力运动员或者一般的运动员都会告诉你13%的增长是非常显著的。”

Now, the interesting thing about Veillonella is that they thrive on lactate, which is a chemical produced by fatigued muscle. The bacteria consume lactate and convert it into a fatty acid called proprionate. And mice that were treated to proprionate, which was delivered via teeny tiny enemas to mimic its release by gut bacteria, similarly extended their treadmill time.

现在,关于细孔菌有趣的事情是它们靠乳酸生长,乳酸是肌肉疲劳产生的一种化学物质。细菌消耗乳酸并将其转化为一种叫做本体酸的脂肪酸。而那些接受了本体酸治疗的老鼠,通过微小的灌肠来模拟肠道细菌的释放,同样延长了它们在跑步机上的时间。

“So this creates a kind of a positive feedback loop and helps us to understand why Veillonella might be enriched in elite athletes in the first place.”

“因此,这创造了一种积极的反馈循环,帮助我们理解,为什么韦洛内拉可能首先在优秀运动员身上得到了丰富。”

Exercise produces lactate, which feeds Veillonella. Veillonella produces proprionate, which somehow promotes endurance, at least in treadmill-trotting mice. Which means that gut microbes may hold the secret to extending that workout—without getting pooped.

运动产生乳酸,乳酸可以喂养细孔菌。Veillonella会产生本体酸,这在某种程度上促进耐力,至少在跑步的老鼠身上是这样。这意味着肠道微生物可能掌握着延长锻炼时间的秘密——不需要排便。

Elite Runners' Microbes Make Mice Mightier

The microbes in our intestines help keep us healthy, strengthening our immune systems and promoting metabolism. But they may also give us a leg up when it comes to moving our legs up—and down again, rapidly and repeatedly—because a new study finds that mice that are fed bacteria isolated from elite athletes log more time on the treadmill than other mice that are treated only to bacteria found in yogurt. The results appear in the journal Nature Medicine.

Aleksandar Kostic, a microbiologist at Harvard Medical School, was initially interested in how the gut microbes of people with diabetes might differ from folks without the condition—the idea being that tweaking the microbiome might help to treat the disease. But the question of enhancing overall health and fitness can also come from the other direction:

“Here the question was more, what’s unique in the gut microbiome of someone who is supremely healthy? And can we use that feature of the microbiome to transfer into other people to potentially make them healthier?”

And a handy window into the gut is poop. So Kostic and his crew asked 15 runners who competed in the Boston Marathon in 2015 to provide daily stool samples from a week before the race to a week after. They also collected samples from 10 people who are decidedly more sedentary, and they tallied the bacteria present in each.

“And when we looked at this data, there was really one thing that jumped out at us, and it was this genus of bacteria that isn’t so well studied: Veillonella. We found it was very significantly higher in abundance in the gut after the marathon. But not only that, it was found much more frequently in elite marathon runners than in the general population."

To see whether this microbe might provide the athletes with any benefit, they gave some to mice and then let the little rodents run. And they found that the mice loaded with Veillonella spent more time on the treadmill than those that got Lactobacillus.

“And this was an increase of 13 percent ... I think any endurance athlete or any athlete in general will tell you that a 13 percent increase is pretty significant.”

Now, the interesting thing about Veillonella is that they thrive on lactate, which is a chemical produced by fatigued muscle. The bacteria consume lactate and convert it into a fatty acid called proprionate. And mice that were treated to proprionate, which was delivered via teeny tiny enemas to mimic its release by gut bacteria, similarly extended their treadmill time.

“So this creates a kind of a positive feedback loop and helps us to understand why Veillonella might be enriched in elite athletes in the first place.”

Exercise produces lactate, which feeds Veillonella. Veillonella produces proprionate, which somehow promotes endurance, at least in treadmill-trotting mice. Which means that gut microbes may hold the secret to extending that workout—without getting pooped.


内容来自 VOA英语学习网https://www.chinavoa.com/show-8762-241757-1.html
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