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VOA慢速英语:美国用零碳排放系统代替化石燃料发电需花费巨资

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Study: Replacing Fossil Fuels in US Could Cost $4.7 Trillion

研究称:美国代替化石燃料可能要消耗47000亿美元

A new study has found that replacing fossil fuel power systems in the United States could cost up to $4.7 trillion.

一项新的研究发现,在美国替换化石燃料发电系统的成本可能高达47000亿美元。

The study was released by energy research company Wood Mackenzie. The company is based in Edinburgh, Scotland.

能源研究公司伍德麦肯兹发表了这项研究。该公司总部位于苏格兰爱丁堡。

The report includes one of the first independent cost estimates for completely ending power sources that produce carbon pollution.

该报告包含了对完全停止使用产生碳污染的发电来源的第一批独立成本估算之一。

Some American politicians support the complete replacement of all fossil fuel-based energy sources in the United States with zero carbon systems. The study estimates this could cost at least $4.7 trillion and could present major economic and social difficulties. The total would amount to about $35,000 per U.S. household, the study found.

一些美国的政治家支持用零碳排放系统完全取代美国所有的化石燃料能源。此项研究估计这一举措能花费至少47000亿美元并且会产生严重的经济和社会危机。该研究发现这个总额平摊到每个美国家庭的数量为3万5千美元。

Several Democratic presidential candidates have proposed their own plans to reach the goal of zero carbon emissions.

几位民主党总统候选人提出了自己实现零碳排放目标的计划。

Former Vice President Joe Biden has said his plan would cost about $1.7 trillion. Another candidate, Beto O’Rourke, has proposed a $5-trillion plan to get to zero emissions.

前副总统乔·拜登称他的计划将花费约17000亿美元。另外一个候选人贝托·奥鲁克提出了耗资50000亿美元的零碳排放计划。

Democratic U.S. House member Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez, who represents New York, helped create a “Green New Deal” proposal that seeks to solve several major environmental issues. It has been estimated to cost around $10 trillion.

代表纽约的美国民主党众议院议员亚历山大·奥卡西奥·科尔特斯协助创建了一个叫做“新型绿色协议” 的提案。它寻求解决几个重大的环境问题。预计它将耗资约10万亿美元。

Such ideas seek to appeal to a growing sense of urgency about climate change on both sides of the political divide. But many Republicans, including President Donald Trump, have criticized the Democratic proposals as being costly and impossible to carry out. They say the plans would harm the economy.

这样的构想意在迎合两个政党双方产生的一种日益增加的气候变化的紧迫感。但是包括总统唐纳德·特朗普在内的很多共和党人指责民主党的提案花费太高并且不可能实施。他们表示这些计划将会损害经济发展。

A public opinion study released last week by Reuters/Ipsos showed that most Americans support "aggressive" climate change action like that proposed by Democrats. But that support falls sharply if individuals sense the plans would personally cost them.

路透社和益普索上周发布的一项民意调查研究发现大多数美国人支持像民主党人提出的“激进”的气候变化行动。但是如果人们意识到这些计划可能会使个人为它们花费资金,那么支持的数量会急剧下降。

Wood Mackenzie’s report centers only on the costs to replace fossil fuel sources used to generate power. One of the main fossil fuel sources for U.S. power plants is coal. Coal plants give off air pollutants and heat-trapping gases that have been linked to climate change.

伍德麦肯兹生的报告只集中报道了取代化石燃料资源来发电的花费。美国发电厂一个主要的化石燃料资源是煤。煤场会释放与气候变化紧密相关的污染物和吸收热量的气体。

The study said the change from fossil fuels to green sources would require “a complete redesign” of the current power system.

研究称将化石燃料转变成绿色能源将要求对现今的发电系统进行一次彻底改造。

It estimated that 1,600 gigawatts of wind and solar capacity would have to be added, at a cost of around $1.5 trillion.

据估计将不得不增加1600千兆瓦的风能和太阳能发电能力,费用约为1.5万亿美元。

That is more than 11 times the nation’s current wind and solar capacity. Even though the costs of wind and solar have been dropping, a sharp increase in demand could drive prices up, the study noted.

那将超过美国现今风力和太阳能发电的11倍。该研究指出,即使风力和太阳能的成本已经有所下降,需求量急剧增加会迫使价格上涨。

The report estimated that more than 320,000 kilometers of electrical wires would have to be added to carry wind and solar energy from rural areas to major cities. The estimated cost for that effort would be about $700 billion.

该报告预计称需要增加32万千米的电线来将风力和太阳能发的电从乡村地区输送给大城市。安装电线的成本预计有7千亿美元左右。

The study noted that major costs could be reduced if the process of completely moving away from fossil fuel sources took place over a longer period of time.

该研究指出如果完全从化石燃料能源脱离的过程持续的时间更长一点儿那么主要的花费可能会降低。

I’m Bryan Lynn.

布赖恩·林恩为您报道。

Study: Replacing Fossil Fuels in US Could Cost $4.7 Trillion

A new study has found that replacing fossil fuel power systems in the United States could cost up to $4.7 trillion.

The study was released by energy research company Wood Mackenzie. The company is based in Edinburgh, Scotland.

The report includes one of the first independent cost estimates for completely ending power sources that produce carbon pollution.

Some American politicians support the complete replacement of all fossil fuel-based energy sources in the United States with zero carbon systems. The study estimates this could cost at least $4.7 trillion and could present major economic and social difficulties. The total would amount to about $35,000 per U.S. household, the study found.

Several Democratic presidential candidates have proposed their own plans to reach the goal of zero carbon emissions.

Former Vice President Joe Biden has said his plan would cost about $1.7 trillion. Another candidate, Beto O’Rourke, has proposed a $5-trillion plan to get to zero emissions.

Democratic U.S. House member Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez, who represents New York, helped create a “Green New Deal” proposal that seeks to solve several major environmental issues. It has been estimated to cost around $10 trillion.

Such ideas seek to appeal to a growing sense of urgency about climate change on both sides of the political divide. But many Republicans, including President Donald Trump, have criticized the Democratic proposals as being costly and impossible to carry out. They say the plans would harm the economy.

A public opinion study released last week by Reuters/Ipsos showed that most Americans support "aggressive" climate change action like that proposed by Democrats. But that support falls sharply if individuals sense the plans would personally cost them.

Wood Mackenzie’s report centers only on the costs to replace fossil fuel sources used to generate power. One of the main fossil fuel sources for U.S. power plants is coal. Coal plants give off air pollutants and heat-trapping gases that have been linked to climate change.

The study said the change from fossil fuels to green sources would require “a complete redesign” of the current power system.

It estimated that 1,600 gigawatts of wind and solar capacity would have to be added, at a cost of around $1.5 trillion.

That is more than 11 times the nation’s current wind and solar capacity. Even though the costs of wind and solar have been dropping, a sharp increase in demand could drive prices up, the study noted.

The report estimated that more than 320,000 kilometers of electrical wires would have to be added to carry wind and solar energy from rural areas to major cities. The estimated cost for that effort would be about $700 billion.

The study noted that major costs could be reduced if the process of completely moving away from fossil fuel sources took place over a longer period of time.

I’m Bryan Lynn.

_____________________________________________________________

Words in This Story

fossil fuel – n. a fuel, such as coal, oil, or natural gas, that is formed in the earth from dead plants or animals

source – n. where something comes from

emission – n. the act of producing or sending out something (such as energy or gas) from a source

capacity – n. the largest amount of something that can be held in a container, building, etc.


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