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VOA慢速英语:日常会话中三种常见句式结构

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Three Common Forms in Everyday Speech

日常会话中三种常见形式

Have you ever had someone “repair” a home appliance but it kept breaking?

你是否曾经经历过“修理”一件家用电器但是它还是不断地出毛病呢?

I have been having trouble with my sink for a month. Yesterday, the maintenance man repaired it…again.

我的水槽坏了一个月了。昨天,维修人员修了一次了…又坏了。

And it worked fine…once.

并且它工作地很好……就一次。

But then last night, I turned the water on low and walked away for just a few seconds. When I returned, I noticed water all over the floor. I was about to go to bed. But instead I had to clean up the mess.

但是昨天晚上,我将水流调到很慢然后只走开了几秒钟。当我返回时,我发现满地板都是水。 我本来马上要上床睡觉了。但是取而代之的是我必须清理这一片混乱。

Ugh, the sink keeps leaking. So, in a little while, I'll go ask the building supervisor to replace it.

额,水槽还是一直在漏水。所以,过了一小会儿,我要去找楼房主管让他来把它换掉。

I just used three conversational English forms in my sad sink story. All are common to American English and some are common to other Englishes. They involve the words “about” “keep” and “go.” On today’s program, I will talk about them.

我刚才在我悲伤的水槽故事中使用了三个英语对话形式。所有这些形式在美式英语中是很常见的并且一些在其他类型英语中也很常见。他们包括“about”“keep”和“go”这些单词。在今天的栏目中,我将讨论它们的用法。

Be about to + verb

Be about to+动词

And, I am about to begin.

我马上要开始了。

English speakers use the form “be about to” to emphasize that an action will happen very soon. It is a friendly form we use in speech every day. For example, I told you I was about to go to bed. That means I was at the point of starting that action.

说英语的人使用“be about to”这种形式来强调一个动作马上要发生了。它在日常口语中是一种很有用的形式。例如,我告诉你我马上要上床睡觉了。意思是我马上就要开始那个动作了。

We can also use “be about to” for such subjects as things and ideas. We can say, for example, “It’s about to rain” and “The proposal is about to be released.”

我们也能用事物和主意这样的词作为“be about to”的主语。例如我们可以说,“它马上就要下雨了”和“提议马上要公布了。”

The sentence structure is the verb be + about to + base verb. The base form of a verb is its shortest form with no -s ending.

这个句子结构是动词be+about to+动词原形。动词的最基础形式为结尾没有-s的动词最短形式。

Listen to a quick exchange between friends hurrying to an event:

听匆忙去参加一项活动的一对朋友之间的一段仓促的对话:

Hi, Jonathan.

嗨,乔纳森。

Hey, Sue. Have you left the house yet?

嘿,休。你出家门了吗?

No, but I was just about to put on my shoes.

没呢,但是我马上要穿上我的鞋子了。

Perfect, Im about to hop on the metro. See you in a few!

太好了,我马上要乘上地铁了。一会儿见。

Sue said, “I was just about to put on my shoes.”  Note her use of the past tense “was.” We can use “be about to” with the present or past tense of the verb “be.”

休说,“I was just about to put on my shoes.”注意一下她使用了过去时态“was”。我们在使用“be about to”时可以用动词“be”的现在时态或者过去时态。

Note also that the word “just” is common with this form. If people say they are just about to do something, it means they expect to do it right now.

也注意下“just”这个单词也常和这个形式一起使用。如果人们说他们马上要去做某事了,它的意思是他们希望立马去做这件事。

The negative form of “be about to” has a completely different meaning, however. It means someone feels a strong desire or willpower to do something. For instance, “I’m not about to miss this show. I paid $70 for the ticket!” It's like saying, “I will go to the show and wont let anyone or anything stop me.” The negative is not always considered friendly, so use it carefully!

然而“be about to”的否定形式的意义就完全不同了。它的意思是某人感觉有种强烈的欲望或者意志去做某事。例如,“我不会错过这场演出。我买票花了70美元。”它像是在说,“我要去看这场演出,不会让任何人或者事阻止我。”否定形式并不总是被认为是友好的,所以要慎重使用!

Keep (on) + gerund

Keep (on) +动名词

Now, let’s move to the verb “keep” plus a gerund, which is the -ing form of a verb.

现在,让我们转向动词“keep”加动名词的讲述。动名词就是动词的ing形式。

When we use this form, it means that something is happening continuously or again and again. Earlier, you heard me say, “The sink keeps leaking.” The verb “keep” is followed by the gerund “leaking.”

当我们使用这个形式时,它的意思是某事持续不断地发生或者一遍又一遍地发生。节目早些时候,你听到我说,“The sink keeps leaking.”动词“keep”后面跟着动名词“leaking”。

We often use keep + gerund to show irritation that an action or situation has not stopped. We also sometimes use it with the preposition “on.”

我们通常使用keep+动名词这个句式来表达对某个动作或者情景不停发生这种情况而感到很懊恼。我们有时也将它和介词“on”一起使用。

Students keep playing with their mobile phones in class, for example. The cat keeps on scratching the chairs. And my teammate keeps hitting the ball too far!

例如学生在课上不停地玩他们的手机。这只猫不停地挠这些椅子。我的队友不停地将球打得很远。

Other times, we use it to give directions or tell someone how to do something. Listen to this person give a friend directions to her house and tell them what to do when they arrive:

其他时候,我们使用它来指明方向或者告诉某人如何去做某事。听关于这个人给他的朋友指明去她家的方向并告诉他们到达之后怎么做的一段的对话:

Keep walking straight until you see a flower shop on the right. My house is the first building behind the shop. Dinner preparations are on the table. When you boil the noodles, please keep stirring them. Otherwise, theyll stick together. Thanks!

一直直走直到你看到右边有个花店。我的房子是花店后面的第一栋建筑。饭准备材料在桌子上,当你煮面条时,要一直搅拌它们。要不然它们会黏在一起。谢谢!

You heard the speaker say, “Keep walking straight…” to tell them to continue walking. They also said, “Please keep stirring” the noodles to make sure the friend does this continuously.

你听到这个说话的人说,“一直走……”来告诉他们不停地走。他们还说,“请一直搅拌”面条是为了确保朋友不停地做这件事。

Go / Come (and) + verb

Go / Come (and)+动词

And finally, we have the form go / come + verb.

最后我们讨论 go / come + 动词这个形式。

In spoken English, we often add the verb “go” or “come” to other action verbs. When we do this, we are talking about an action in the future.

在英语口语中我们经常将动词“go”和“come”加到其他动作动词上。当我们这样做时,我们讨论将来发生的动作。

I said, for example, “So, tomorrow, I’ll go ask the building supervisor to replace it.” The structure is go / come + base verb. I used the base verb “ask.”

例如,我说“所以,明天,我将去让楼房主管帮我换掉它。”这个结构是go / come+动词原形。我使用了“ask”这个动词原形。

Use of “go” and “come” do not change the meaning of what we’re saying. Instead, they make our speech sound friendlier or more natural.

使用“go”和“come”并不会改变我们要表达的意思。相反,他们使我们的说话语气更加亲切或者更加自然。

Listen to how our speaker uses the verbs “come” and “go” here:

听一听我们的说话者在这里如何使用动词“come”和“go”:

Come visit me in July! You can stay for the long weekend. There is a huge film festival happening. So we can go see a lot of movies in a short time.

六月时来找我!你能在这里度过漫长的假期。这里会举行大型电影节。所以我们可以在很短的时间内看很多电影。

The speaker’s use of “come” in “Come visit me in July,” for instance, sounds more natural in everyday speech than “Visit me in July!”

例如说话的人在“Come visit me in July”这句话中使用“come”,在日常会话中听起来比“Visit me in July!”这样的表达更自然。

Another version of this form adds the word “and.” An example would be, “Come and visit me in July!” The “and” is common to British and other Englishes but only in some parts of the United States.

这种句子形式的另外一个型式是加上单词“and”。一个例子是,“Come and visit me in July!”。但是词“and”在英式英语或者其他类型的英语中很常见。但是仅仅在美国的部分地区常用到。

Well, that’s all for today. Go listen for these forms wherever you hear English being spoken. Then, come tell us what you find!

好吧,那就是今天节目的所有内容。在任何说英语的地方注意听这些形式。然后告诉我们发现了什么。

I’m about to sign off and go find the building supervisor. See you soon!

我要结束广播并去找楼房主管了。再见!

I’m Alice Bryant.

爱丽丝·布莱恩特为您报道。

Three Common Forms in Everyday Speech

Have you ever had someone “repair” a home appliance but it kept breaking?

I have been having trouble with my sink for a month. Yesterday, the maintenance man repaired it…again.

And it worked fine…once.

But then last night, I turned the water on low and walked away for just a few seconds. When I returned, I noticed water all over the floor. I was about to go to bed. But instead I had to clean up the mess.

Ugh, the sink keeps leaking. So, in a little while, I'll go ask the building supervisor to replace it.

I just used three conversational English forms in my sad sink story. All are common to American English and some are common to other Englishes. They involve the words “about” “keep” and “go.” On today’s program, I will talk about them.

Be about to + verb

And, I am about to begin.

English speakers use the form “be about to” to emphasize that an action will happen very soon. It is a friendly form we use in speech every day. For example, I told you I was about to go to bed. That means I was at the point of starting that action.

We can also use “be about to” for such subjects as things and ideas. We can say, for example, “It’s about to rain” and “The proposal is about to be released.”

The sentence structure is the verb be + about to + base verb. The base form of a verb is its shortest form with no -s ending.

Listen to a quick exchange between friends hurrying to an event:

 

Hi, Jonathan.

Hey, Sue. Have you left the house yet?

No, but I was just about to put on my shoes.

Perfect, Im about to hop on the metro. See you in a few!

 

Sue said, “I was just about to put on my shoes.”  Note her use of the past tense “was.” We can use “be about to” with the present or past tense of the verb “be.”

Note also that the word “just” is common with this form. If people say they are just about to do something, it means they expect to do it right now.

The negative form of “be about to” has a completely different meaning, however. It means someone feels a strong desire or willpower to do something. For instance, “I’m not about to miss this show. I paid $70 for the ticket!” It's like saying, “I will go to the show and wont let anyone or anything stop me.” The negative is not always considered friendly, so use it carefully!

Keep (on) + gerund

Now, let’s move to the verb “keep” plus a gerund, which is the -ing form of a verb.

When we use this form, it means that something is happening continuously or again and again. Earlier, you heard me say, “The sink keeps leaking.” The verb “keep” is followed by the gerund “leaking.”

We often use keep + gerund to show irritation that an action or situation has not stopped. We also sometimes use it with the preposition “on.”

Students keep playing with their mobile phones in class, for example. The cat keeps on scratching the chairs. And my teammate keeps hitting the ball too far!

Other times, we use it to give directions or tell someone how to do something. Listen to this person give a friend directions to her house and tell them what to do when they arrive:

 

Keep walking straight until you see a flower shop on the right. My house is the first building behind the shop. Dinner preparations are on the table. When you boil the noodles, please keep stirring them. Otherwise, theyll stick together. Thanks!

 

You heard the speaker say, “Keep walking straight…” to tell them to continue walking. They also said, “Please keep stirring” the noodles to make sure the friend does this continuously.

Go / Come (and) + verb

And finally, we have the form go / come + verb.

In spoken English, we often add the verb “go” or “come” to other action verbs. When we do this, we are talking about an action in the future.

I said, for example, “So, tomorrow, I’ll go ask the building supervisor to replace it.” The structure is go / come + base verb. I used the base verb “ask.”

Use of “go” and “come” do not change the meaning of what we’re saying. Instead, they make our speech sound friendlier or more natural.

Listen to how our speaker uses the verbs “come” and “go” here:

Come visit me in July! You can stay for the long weekend. There is a huge film festival happening. So we can go see a lot of movies in a short time.

The speaker’s use of “come” in “Come visit me in July,” for instance, sounds more natural in everyday speech than “Visit me in July!”

Another version of this form adds the word “and.” An example would be, “Come and visit me in July!” The “and” is common to British and other Englishes but only in some parts of the United States.

Well, that’s all for today. Go listen for these forms wherever you hear English being spoken. Then, come tell us what you find!

I’m about to sign off and go find the building supervisor. See you soon!

I’m Alice Bryant.

_______________________________________________________________

Words in This Story

appliance – n. a piece of equipment, often operated electrically, especially for use in the home

mess – n. a very dirty or untidy state or condition

conversational – adj. relating to or suggesting informal talk

emphasize – v. to give special attention to

hop on – v. to get onto something that is moving, such as a train or bus

negative – adj. expressing denial or refusal

ticket – n. a piece of paper that allows you to see a show, participate in an event or travel on a vehicle

irritation – n. the state of feeling annoyed, impatient or slightly angry

scratch – n. to make a line or mark in the surface of something cutting it with something rough or sharp

noodle – n. a thin strip of dough made from flour, water, and eggs and that is cooked in boiling liquid


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