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VOA慢速英语:科学家在北极雪中发现高含量的塑料

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Scientists Find High Levels of Plastics in Arctic Snow

科学家在北极雪中发现高含量的塑料

Scientists say they have found high levels of small plastic particles in Arctic snow. Their findings provide more evidence that plastic is entering Earth's atmosphere and traveling great distances around the planet.

科学家表示他们在北极雪中发现了高含量的小型塑料颗粒。他们的发现提供了更多的证据证明塑料正在进入地球大气并且围绕这地球行程了很远的距离。

A new report describing the discovery was published in Science Advances.

描述这次发现的一个新报告被发表在了Science Advances上。

A German-Swiss research team collected snow samples from the Arctic and other areas. They included northern Germany, the Bavarian and Swiss Alps, and the North Sea island of Heligoland.

一个德国和瑞士的研究团队从北极和其他地区搜集了雪样。这些地区包括德国北部、巴伐利亚、瑞士阿尔卑斯山和黑尔戈兰岛的北海岛。

When the researchers examined the samples in a laboratory, they were surprised to find very high levels of microplastics.

当研究人员在实验室检验样品时,他们惊奇地发现高含量的微型塑料。

Microplastics are very small pieces of plastic. These plastic particles are generally smaller than 5 millimeters in length. Other studies have found microplastics in the environment. They come from the disposal and breakdown of man-made plastic products and industrial waste.

微型塑料是小型塑料。这些塑料颗粒的长度通常小于5毫米。其他的研究发现了环境中的微型塑料。他们来自于人造塑料产品和工业废物的处理和降解。

Melanie Bergmann co-wrote the report on the new study. She told The Associated Press that while her team did expect to find some microplastics in the samples, they were surprised by the very large amounts.

梅勒妮·伯格漫也参与写作这项新研究的报告。她告诉美联社当她的团队确实期望在这些样品中找到一些微型塑料,他们被非常高含量惊讶到了。

Bergmann is a researcher at the Alfred-Wegener-Institute in the German city of Bremerhaven.

伯格漫在德国城市不来海港的阿尔弗雷德-韦格纳-研究所担任研究员。

The study found the highest levels of microplastics came from the Bavarian Alps. One snow sample from the area had 154,000 microplastic particles per liter. Samples collected from the Arctic had much lower levels. However, even samples from the Arctic contained up to 14,000 particles per liter, the study found.

这项研究发现最高含量的微型塑料来自布伐利亚的阿尔卑斯山。来自该地区的雪样每公升含15万4000个微型塑料颗粒。从北极搜集来的样品的含量要低很多。然而,研究发现来自北极的雪样甚至每公升包涵1万4000个颗粒。

Earlier studies found signs of plastic in Arctic areas. Those microplastics were found in coastal areas, sea ice, the seafloor and the seawater's surface.

更早的研究在北极地区发现了塑料存在的迹象。那些微型塑料在海洋地区、海冰里、海底和海水表面被发现。

The new study attempted to explore how some of the material could have been carried in the atmosphere. A limited number of earlier studies did find microplastics in the air of some cities, including Paris, Tehran and Dongguan, China.

这项新研究试图探索一些这样的材料是如何在大气中被运输的。有限数量的更早的研究确实在这些城市的空气中发现了微型塑料。这些城市包括巴黎、德黑兰和中国的广东。

Bergmann said in a statement she believes the new study clearly shows that "the majority of the microplastic in the snow comes from the air." She said this idea is supported by research that studied the atmospheric movement of pollen from plants. In those studies, scientists confirmed pollen had traveled great distances to reach the Arctic.

伯格漫在一次声明中表示她相信这项新研究清楚地显示出雪中的微型塑料的大多数来自空气。她表示这个看法由发现植物花粉在大气中移动的研究作为支撑。在那些研究中,科学家们确定花粉行程了更远的距离到达了北极。

Other studies found that dust particles – which are similar to microplastics - traveled more than 3,500 kilometers from the Sahara Desert to the northeast Atlantic.

其他的研究发现与微型塑料相似的微尘颗粒从撒哈拉沙漠行程3千500千米的距离到达大西洋的东北部。

Bergmann said the new study suggests that much of the microplastic found in Europe and the Arctic comes from the atmosphere and snow. "This additional transport route could also explain the high amounts of microplastic that we've found in the Arctic sea ice and the deep sea in previous studies," she said.

伯格漫表示这项新研究表明在欧洲和北极被发现微型塑料中很多都来自大气和雪。她表示”“这种额外的运输路径也解释了在先前的研究中在北极海洋冰和深海中发现的高含量的微型塑料”。

The research team discovered many kinds of microplastics. Some were from paints commonly used to coat the surface of automobiles and ships. A rubber-like substance was also found that could have come from vehicle or boat parts or packaging materials, the report said.

这个研究团队发现了很多种类的微型塑料。一些来自通常用于覆盖汽车和轮船表面的漆。报告称研究发现的一种很像橡胶的物质可能来自车辆或者轮船的零件或者包装材料。

While there is growing concern about the effect of microplastics on the environment, scientists are still studying their possible harmful effects on humans and animals.

当对环境中存在的微型塑料产生的影响担忧越来越大时,科学家仍然在研究他们对人类和动物可能产生的有害影响。

Bergmann said she hopes the new study will lead to more research on this issue. She also said she believes that microscopic plastic particles should be included in worldwide observations of air pollution levels.

伯格漫表示她希望这项新研究将引导在这个问题上的更多的研究。她也表示她相信微型塑料颗粒应该被包含全球在空气污染指数观测中。

"We really need to know what effects microplastics have on humans, especially if inhaled with the air that we breathe," Bergmann said.

“我们真的需要了解微型塑料对人类有什么样的影响,尤其是我们将其与空气一起吸入时。”

I'm Bryan Lynn.

布赖恩·林恩为您报道。

_____________________________________________________________

Words in This Story

sample – n. a small piece or piece meant to show what the whole being or object is like;

disposal – n. the act of getting rid of something

route – n. the path followed to get from one place to another

packaging – n. t e paper, box, etc. something is kept in so it can be sold or sent somewhere

inhale – v. to breathe in

Scientists Find High Levels of Plastics in Arctic Snow

Scientists say they have found high levels of small plastic particles in Arctic snow. Their findings provide more evidence that plastic is entering Earth's atmosphere and traveling great distances around the planet.

A new report describing the discovery was published in Science Advances.

A German-Swiss research team collected snow samples from the Arctic and other areas. They included northern Germany, the Bavarian and Swiss Alps, and the North Sea island of Heligoland.

When the researchers examined the samples in a laboratory, they were surprised to find very high levels of microplastics.

Microplastics are very small pieces of plastic. These plastic particles are generally smaller than 5 millimeters in length. Other studies have found microplastics in the environment. They come from the disposal and breakdown of man-made plastic products and industrial waste.

Melanie Bergmann co-wrote the report on the new study. She told The Associated Press that while her team did expect to find some microplastics in the samples, they were surprised by the very large amounts.

Bergmann is a researcher at the Alfred-Wegener-Institute in the German city of Bremerhaven.

The study found the highest levels of microplastics came from the Bavarian Alps. One snow sample from the area had 154,000 microplastic particles per liter. Samples collected from the Arctic had much lower levels. However, even samples from the Arctic contained up to 14,000 particles per liter, the study found.

Earlier studies found signs of plastic in Arctic areas. Those microplastics were found in coastal areas, sea ice, the seafloor and the seawater's surface.

The new study attempted to explore how some of the material could have been carried in the atmosphere. A limited number of earlier studies did find microplastics in the air of some cities, including Paris, Tehran and Dongguan, China.

Bergmann said in a statement she believes the new study clearly shows that "the majority of the microplastic in the snow comes from the air." She said this idea is supported by research that studied the atmospheric movement of pollen from plants. In those studies, scientists confirmed pollen had traveled great distances to reach the Arctic.

Other studies found that dust particles – which are similar to microplastics - traveled more than 3,500 kilometers from the Sahara Desert to the northeast Atlantic.

Bergmann said the new study suggests that much of the microplastic found in Europe and the Arctic comes from the atmosphere and snow. "This additional transport route could also explain the high amounts of microplastic that we've found in the Arctic sea ice and the deep sea in previous studies," she said.

The research team discovered many kinds of microplastics. Some were from paints commonly used to coat the surface of automobiles and ships. A rubber-like substance was also found that could have come from vehicle or boat parts or packaging materials, the report said.

While there is growing concern about the effect of microplastics on the environment, scientists are still studying their possible harmful effects on humans and animals.

Bergmann said she hopes the new study will lead to more research on this issue. She also said she believes that microscopic plastic particles should be included in worldwide observations of air pollution levels.

"We really need to know what effects microplastics have on humans, especially if inhaled with the air that we breathe," Bergmann said.

I'm Bryan Lynn.

_____________________________________________________________

Words in This Story

sample – n. a small piece or piece meant to show what the whole being or object is like;

disposal – n. the act of getting rid of something

route – n. the path followed to get from one place to another

packaging – n. t e paper, box, etc. something is kept in so it can be sold or sent somewhere

inhale – v. to breathe in


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