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科学美国人60秒: 通过进化改善生活:诺贝尔化学奖

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Better Living through Evolution: Nobel Prize in Chemistry

通过进化改善生活:诺贝尔化学奖

“This year’s prize is harnessing the power of evolution. The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences has decided to award the 2018 Nobel Prize in Chemistry with one half to Frances H. Arnold for the directed evolution of enzymes and the other half jointly to George P. Smith and Gregory P. Winter for the phage display of peptides and antibodies.”

今年的奖项是利用进化的力量。瑞典皇家科学院(Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences)决定将2018年诺贝尔化学奖授予弗朗西斯·h·阿诺德(Frances H. Arnold),以表彰她对酶的指导进化,另一半授予乔治·p·史密斯(George P. Smith)和格雷戈里·p·温特(Gregory P. Winter),以表彰他们对噬菌体展示肽和抗体的研究。

Göran Hansson, secretary general of the Academy, earlier today. And I’m Steve Mirsky. Welcome to Scientific American’s Science Talk, posted on October 3rd, 2018. What follows is an edited version of the announcement and press conference.

该学院秘书长戈兰·汉森今天早些时候表示。我是史蒂夫·米尔斯基。欢迎来到发表于2018年10月3日的《科学美国人》科学讲座。以下是经过编辑的公告和新闻发布会。

“Frances H. Arnold was born in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, in the United States in 1956 and she’s currently at the California Institute of Technology, Caltech, in Pasadena in the Los Angeles area. George P. Smith was born in 1941 in Norwalk, Connecticut, and he’s currently at the University of Missouri, in Columbia, in the United States. Sir Gregory P. Winter was born in 1951 in Leicester, in the United Kingdom. And he is at the Laboratory of Molecular Biology and the University of Cambridge in England.

1956年,弗朗西丝·h·阿诺德出生于美国宾夕法尼亚州匹兹堡市,目前在洛杉矶帕萨迪纳的加州理工学院就读。乔治·p·史密斯1941年出生于康涅狄格的诺沃克,目前在美国哥伦比亚的密苏里大学就读。格雷戈里·温特爵士1951年出生于英国莱斯特。他在英国剑桥大学分子生物学实验室工作。

“So with that I’d like to ask Claes Gustafsson, chairman of the Nobel committee, to make some remarks about the prize.”

“因此,我想请诺贝尔委员会主席克拉斯·古斯塔夫松就诺贝尔奖发表一些评论。”

CG: “This year’s prize in chemistry rewards a revolution based on evolution. Our laureates have applied principles of Darwin in test tubes. And used this approach to develop new types of chemicals for the greatest benefit of humankind…

今年的化学奖奖励了一场基于进化的革命。我们的获奖者已经在试管中应用了达尔文的原理。并利用这种方法开发新型化学品,造福人类……

“For thousands of years we humans have used selective breeding to create animals and plants with properties that have been useful for us. This year’s Nobel laureates have taken the next step. They have used the molecular understanding that we today have of the evolutionary process and re-created the process in their laboratories in their test tubes….

“几千年来,我们人类利用选择性育种创造出对我们有用的动物和植物。今年的诺贝尔奖得主已经迈出了下一步。他们利用分子认识到今天我们的进化过程和重建过程中他们的实验室试管....

“This work has led to the creation of proteins with new enzymatic activities, able to catalyze useful chemical reactions. In addition, with the method called phage display, they have also evolved proteins with new binding properties, such as antibodies that can be used to treat disease. In their laboratories, our laureates this year have been able to direct evolution, to steer it, which has led to new chemical tools that can be used in everything from environmentally friendly detergents to the creation of new biofuels and pharmaceuticals.”

“这项工作导致了具有新的酶活性的蛋白质的产生,能够催化有用的化学反应。此外,通过这种被称为噬菌体展示的方法,它们还进化出了具有新的结合特性的蛋白质,例如可用于治疗疾病的抗体。在他们的实验室里,我们的获奖者今年已经能够引导进化,引导它,这导致了新的化学工具,可以用于从环保洗涤剂到新生物燃料和药品的创造的一切。

That’s it for this episode and for our coverage of the 2018 Nobel Prizes in the sciences. On a personal note, earlier this year I started using one of the new class of antibody drugs that this research made possible. These drugs didn’t exist 20 years ago. And now I’m directly benefiting from the work that was honored today. For Scientific American’s Science Talk, I’m Steve Mirsky.

以上就是本期节目以及我们对2018年诺贝尔科学奖的报道。就我个人而言,今年早些时候我开始使用一种新的抗体药物,这项研究使之成为可能。这些药物20年前还不存在。现在我直接受益于今天的工作。《科学美国人》的科学讲座,我是史蒂夫·米尔斯基。

Better Living through Evolution: Nobel Prize in Chemistry

“This year’s prize is harnessing the power of evolution. The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences has decided to award the 2018 Nobel Prize in Chemistry with one half to Frances H. Arnold for the directed evolution of enzymes and the other half jointly to George P. Smith and Gregory P. Winter for the phage display of peptides and antibodies.”

Göran Hansson, secretary general of the Academy, earlier today. And I’m Steve Mirsky. Welcome to Scientific American’s Science Talk, posted on October 3rd, 2018. What follows is an edited version of the announcement and press conference.

“Frances H. Arnold was born in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, in the United States in 1956 and she’s currently at the California Institute of Technology, Caltech, in Pasadena in the Los Angeles area. George P. Smith was born in 1941 in Norwalk, Connecticut, and he’s currently at the University of Missouri, in Columbia, in the United States. Sir Gregory P. Winter was born in 1951 in Leicester, in the United Kingdom. And he is at the Laboratory of Molecular Biology and the University of Cambridge in England.

“So with that I’d like to ask Claes Gustafsson, chairman of the Nobel committee, to make some remarks about the prize.”

CG: “This year’s prize in chemistry rewards a revolution based on evolution. Our laureates have applied principles of Darwin in test tubes. And used this approach to develop new types of chemicals for the greatest benefit of humankind…

“For thousands of years we humans have used selective breeding to create animals and plants with properties that have been useful for us. This year’s Nobel laureates have taken the next step. They have used the molecular understanding that we today have of the evolutionary process and re-created the process in their laboratories in their test tubes….

“This work has led to the creation of proteins with new enzymatic activities, able to catalyze useful chemical reactions. In addition, with the method called phage display, they have also evolved proteins with new binding properties, such as antibodies that can be used to treat disease. In their laboratories, our laureates this year have been able to direct evolution, to steer it, which has led to new chemical tools that can be used in everything from environmentally friendly detergents to the creation of new biofuels and pharmaceuticals.”

That’s it for this episode and for our coverage of the 2018 Nobel Prizes in the sciences. On a personal note, earlier this year I started using one of the new class of antibody drugs that this research made possible. These drugs didn’t exist 20 years ago. And now I’m directly benefiting from the work that was honored today. For Scientific American’s Science Talk, I’m Steve Mirsky.


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