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南非面临裂谷热爆发

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这里是VOA特别英语发展报道。

裂谷热主要影响农田动物。但是这种病毒也会感染人类,南非正面临裂谷热大爆发。截止到7月2日,全国传染性疾病研究所报告共有225个感染病例。其中25人死亡。

世界杯期间,南非发起了扩大项目,监控公共卫生威胁。卫生官员上周表示,目前还没有游客感染裂谷热的病例。受到裂谷热爆发影响的农田大部分都在游客游览的区域以外。

大部分病例出现在两个省份的农田工作者,分别是自由州和北开普省。

大部分人类感染裂谷热是由于与患病动物直接和间接接触。感染病毒的蚊虫也可以将疾病传播给人类。引用感染了疾病的动物未经高温消毒和蒸煮的奶也会感染。

大部分人类感染裂谷热的症状都是比较轻微的。一些病人甚至根本没有感到不适。其他人的症状可能比较像流感,例如发烧,肌肉和关节疼痛,头痛。病人通常在七天内可以恢复。

但是,一些病人比较严重,甚至可能会失明。一些人还会患脑炎,导致头痛,昏迷和抽搐。一些人甚至会流血过多造成死亡。

世界卫生组织表示,裂谷热首次于1932年在肯尼亚发现。2000年,在沙特阿拉伯和也门发现。这是非洲以外报道的首批裂谷热病例。

目前预防裂谷热的疫苗仅限于动物使用。但是研究人员正致力于研究首例人用疫苗。

在一项新的研究中,美国的科学家测试了使用两种失去活性的病毒制成的疫苗。他们表示,对白老鼠进行的实验表明,这种新的疫苗比活病毒疫苗更加安全,而产生的效果则基本相同。在疫苗中使用有活性的病毒会增加风险。

研究人员来自匹兹堡大学和北卡罗莱纳大学。他们的研究发表在科学公共图书馆出版的被忽略的热带疾病期刊上。

South Africa Faces an Outbreak of Rift Valley Fever

This is the VOA Special English Development Report.

Rift Valley fever mainly affects farm animals. But the virus can also infect humans, and South Africa has been experiencing an outbreak. The National Institute for Communicable Diseases reported two hundred twenty-five confirmed human cases as of July second. Twenty-five of the people died.

South Africa launched an expanded program to watch for public health threats during the World Cup. Health officials said last week that there were no cases of Rift Valley fever in tourists. The majority of farms affected by the outbreak are outside areas generally visited by travelers.

Most of the cases have been found in farm workers in two provinces: Free State and Northern Cape.

Most human infections with Rift Valley fever are caused by direct or indirect contact with diseased animals. Infected mosquitoes can also pass the disease to humans. So can drinking unpasteurized or uncooked milk from infected animals.

Most human cases of the disease are minor. Some patients do not get sick at all. Others may get flu-like symptoms such as fever, muscle and joint pain and headaches. Patients normally recover within seven days.

But patients with more severe forms can go blind. Some develop encephalitis, a brain disease that can lead to headaches, coma or seizures. And some patients bleed to death.

The World Health Organization says Rift Valley fever was first discovered in Kenya in nineteen thirty-one. In the year two thousand, it was identified in Saudi Arabia and Yemen. These were the first reported cases of Rift Valley fever outside of Africa.

Current vaccines to protect against Rift Valley fever are limited to use in animals. But researchers are working to develop the first human vaccine.

In a new study, scientists in the United States tested vaccines made with two kinds of inactivated virus. They said tests in mice showed that their new vaccines are safer than live-virus vaccines and appear to work just as well. Using live virus in vaccines can increase the risks.

The researchers are at the University of Pittsburgh and the University of North Carolina. Their study appeared in the journal PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, published by the Public Library of Science,.

And that's the VOA Special English Development Report, written by June Simms. You can read and listen to all of our reports at voa.com. You can also find us on Facebook, Twitter, YouTube and iTunes at VOA Learning English. I'm Steve Ember.


内容来自 VOA英语学习网https://www.chinavoa.com/show-516-130352-1.html
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